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Life Cycle Assessment of Autonomous Electric Field Tractors in Swedish Agriculture

Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
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Academic Editor: Spyros Fountas
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11285; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011285
Received: 13 September 2021 / Revised: 7 October 2021 / Accepted: 9 October 2021 / Published: 13 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture)
There is an increased interest for battery electric vehicles in multiple sectors, including agriculture. The potential for lowered environmental impact is one of the key factors, but there exists a knowledge gap between the environmental impact of on-road vehicles and agricultural work machinery. In this study, a life cycle assessment was performed on two smaller, self-driving battery electric tractors, and the results were compared to those of a conventional tractor for eleven midpoint characterisation factors, three damage categories and one weighted single score. The results showed that compared to the conventional tractor, the battery electric tractor had a higher impact in all categories during the production phase, with battery production being a majority contributor. However, over the entire life cycle, it had a lower impact in the weighted single score (−72%) and all three damage categories; human health (−74%), ecosystem impact (−47%) and resource scarcity (−67%). The global warming potential over the life cycle of the battery electric tractor was 102 kg CO2eq.ha−1 y−1 compared to 293 kg CO2eq.ha−1 y−1 for the conventional system. For the global warming potential category, the use phase was the most influential and the fuel used was the single most important factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; battery electric vehicle; tractors; environmental impact; agriculture life cycle assessment; battery electric vehicle; tractors; environmental impact; agriculture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lagnelöv, O.; Larsson, G.; Larsolle, A.; Hansson, P.-A. Life Cycle Assessment of Autonomous Electric Field Tractors in Swedish Agriculture. Sustainability 2021, 13, 11285. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011285

AMA Style

Lagnelöv O, Larsson G, Larsolle A, Hansson P-A. Life Cycle Assessment of Autonomous Electric Field Tractors in Swedish Agriculture. Sustainability. 2021; 13(20):11285. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011285

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lagnelöv, Oscar, Gunnar Larsson, Anders Larsolle, and Per-Anders Hansson. 2021. "Life Cycle Assessment of Autonomous Electric Field Tractors in Swedish Agriculture" Sustainability 13, no. 20: 11285. https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011285

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