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Article

Heating Energy Consumption and Environmental Implications Due to the Change in Daily Habits in Residential Buildings Derived from COVID-19 Crisis: The Case of Barcelona, Spain

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Department of Architecture, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
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University Center of Defense, University of Zaragoza, 50090 Zaragoza, Spain
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Thermal Engineering and Energy Systems Group (GITSE), Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
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GEOFOREST-IUCA Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Department of Design and Manufacturing Engineering, EINA, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
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Water and Environmental Health Research Group, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020918
Received: 2 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 14 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
The COVID-19 crisis has changed daily habits and the time that people spend at home. It is expected that this change may have environmental implications because of buildings’ heating energy demand. This paper studies the energy and environmental implications, from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, due to these new daily habits in residential buildings at their current level of thermal insulation, and in different scenarios of thermal retrofit of their envelope. This study has a building-to-building approach by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for the residential housing stock in the case of Barcelona, Spain. The results show that a change in daily habits derived from the pandemic can increase the heating energy consumption and carbon dioxide emission in residential buildings by 182%. Retrofitting all buildings of Barcelona, according to conventional energy renovation instead of nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB), will produce between 2.25 × 107 and 2.57 × 107 tons of carbon dioxide. Retrofitting the building stock using energy recovery is the option with better energy and emission savings, but also is the option with higher payback time for buildings built until 2007. The methodology presented can be applied in any city with sufficient cadastral data, and is considered optimal in the European context, as it goes for calculating the heating energy consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; GIS; LCA; urban scale; user behaviour; nZEB renovation; energy retrofit COVID-19; GIS; LCA; urban scale; user behaviour; nZEB renovation; energy retrofit
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monzón-Chavarrías, M.; Guillén-Lambea, S.; García-Pérez, S.; Montealegre-Gracia, A.L.; Sierra-Pérez, J. Heating Energy Consumption and Environmental Implications Due to the Change in Daily Habits in Residential Buildings Derived from COVID-19 Crisis: The Case of Barcelona, Spain. Sustainability 2021, 13, 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020918

AMA Style

Monzón-Chavarrías M, Guillén-Lambea S, García-Pérez S, Montealegre-Gracia AL, Sierra-Pérez J. Heating Energy Consumption and Environmental Implications Due to the Change in Daily Habits in Residential Buildings Derived from COVID-19 Crisis: The Case of Barcelona, Spain. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):918. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020918

Chicago/Turabian Style

Monzón-Chavarrías, Marta, Silvia Guillén-Lambea, Sergio García-Pérez, Antonio Luis Montealegre-Gracia, and Jorge Sierra-Pérez. 2021. "Heating Energy Consumption and Environmental Implications Due to the Change in Daily Habits in Residential Buildings Derived from COVID-19 Crisis: The Case of Barcelona, Spain" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 918. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020918

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