Applying the DRCA Risk Template on the Flood-Prone Disaster Prevention Community Due to Climate Change
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Risk Definitions
2.2. DRCA Risk Template
- Hazard: the threat to loss of life and property.
- Exposure: the object exposed to the hazard.
- Sensitivity: the degree of damage to the system after being affected by the hazard.
- Vulnerability: the residual risk that still exists afterward.
2.3. Future Risk and Hazard Assessment
2.3.1. Climate Service
2.3.2. Future Flooding Potential Simulation
2.4. Participatory Risk Assessment
2.4.1. Group Discussion
2.4.2. Multi-Level Governance (MLG)
3.1. Hazard Assessment
3.2. Participatory Risk Assessment
- Step 1:
- Start-Up Meeting.
- Step 2:
- Activation Workshop.
- Step 3:
- Site Survey and Strategy Development Workshop.
- Step 4:
- Resilient Community Response Team and Action Plan Workshop.
- Step 5:
- Education and Training Workshop.
- Step 6:
- War Game or Drill.
- Step 7:
- Exhibition of Resilient Community.
- Training courses on meteorological information and rainfall classification standards.
- Check drains regularly.
- Maintenance of the rain gauge.
- Inquiry rainfall information website.
- After the typhoon warning is issued, pay attention to whether the river water level is abnormal.
- Patrol inspections in flood-prone areas.
- Step 1:
- Find critical issues
- Step 2:
- Determine the governance level
- Step 3:
- Identify the objects of protection
- Step 4:
- Identify the present and future hazards
- Step 5:
- Set the exposure and sensitivity
- Step 6:
- Discuss adaptability plan
- Level 1—community: Adaptation projects that can be executed by the community, such as taking flood insurance, the survey of disaster-minorities, acquiring meteorological data, reading potential flooding maps, evacuation planning, and conducting community drills.
- Level 2—assistance from the government: Although some adaptation projects require the government’s assistance, this part is still ideally promoted by the community but is assisted by the government, such as the promotion of the disaster prevention community or the accessible facilities in the evacuation shelters.
- Level 3—directly provided by the government: Projects that need to be directly provided by the government. Those items include: geological survey, making and publishing the potential flooding maps, construction of the flood monitoring system, flood-alert issuing mechanism, pump station layout planning, drainage system improvement, IoTs for flooding detection, LID development, promotion of disaster prevention education in the campus, etc.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Mysiak, J.; Castellari, S.; Kurnik, B.; Swart, R.; Pringle, P.; Schwarze, R.; Wolters, H.; Jeuken, A.; van der Linden, P. Brief communication: Strengthening coherence between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Nat. Hazard. Earth Syst. Sci. 2018, 18, 3137–3143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Mechler, R.; Schinko, T. Identifying the policy space for climate loss and damage. Science 2016, 354, 290–292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dias, N.; Clegg, G.; Amaratunga, D.; Haigh, R. A Resilient Environment through The Integration of CCA and DRR: An Overview of Existing Challenges. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. 2019, 9, 129–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- UNISDR. Making Development Sustainable: The Future of Disaster Risk Management; Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction; UNISDR: Geneva, Switzerland, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- IPCC. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- De Leon, E.G.; Pittock, J. Integrating climate change adaptation and climate-related disaster risk-reduction policy in developing countries: A case study in the Philippines. Clim. Dev. 2017, 9, 471–478. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nemakonde, L.D.; van Niekerk, D. A Normative Model for Integrating Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation Within SADC Member States. Disast. Prev. Manag. 2017, 26, 361–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Seidler, R.; Dietrich, K.; Schweizer, S.; Bawa, K.S.; Chopdec, S.; Zaman, F.; Sharma, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Devkota, L.P.; Khaling, S. Progress on integrating climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction for sustainable development pathways in South Asia: Evidence from six research projects. Int. J. Disast. Risk Reduc. 2018, 31, 92–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR). UNISDR Strategic Framework 2016–2021. 2016. Available online: www.unisdr.org/files/51557_strategicframework.pdf (accessed on 7 December 2020).
- Frey, K.; Ramírez, D.R.C. Multi-level network governance of disaster risks: The case of the Metropolitan Region of the Aburra Valley (Medellin, Colombia). J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 2018, 424–445. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- He, C.Y.; Tung, C.-P.; Wang, W.Y. Study on the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation for Regional Governance -Taking the risk of sloping land disaster as an example. J. Chin. Agric. Eng. 2020, 66, 12–25. (In Chinese) [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Dewulf, A.; Biesbroek, G.R. Transformational Change: Governance Interventions for Climate Change Adaptation from a Continuous Change Perspective. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 2017, 60, 558–576. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Van der Heijden, J.; Patterson, J.; Juhola, S.; Wolfram, M. Special Section: Advancing the Role of Cities in Climate Governance—Promise, Limits, Politics. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 2018, 62, 365–373. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Street, R.B.; Buontempo, C.; Mysiak, J.; Karali, E.; Pulquério, M.; Murray, V.; Swart, R. How could climate services support disaster risk reduction in the 21st century. Disas. Risk Reduc. 2019, 34, 28–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- IPCC. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Working Group II Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- ISO. Adaptation to Climate Change—Vulnerability, Impacts and Risk Assessment; ISO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Lin, C.-Y. Study on Climate Change Adaptive Capacity Building of Water Supply System and Monitoring and Revising of Adaptation Pathway. Master’s Thesis, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 1 January 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Tung, C.P.; Taso, J.-H.; Tien, Y.-C.; Lin, C.-Y.; Jhong, B.C. Development of a Novel Climate Adaptation Algorithm for Climate Risk Assessment. Water 2019, 11, 497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Deltares. SOBEK 2.13 User Manual-Hydrodynamics, Rainfall Runoff and Real Time Control; Deltares: Delft, The Netherlands, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Bradbury, H. (Ed.) The SAGE Handbook of Action Research, 3rd ed.; SAGE: London, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Brydon-Miller, M.; Greenwood, D.; Maguire, P. Why action research? Act. Res. 2003, 1, 9–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morchain, D.; Spear, D.; Ziervogel, G.; Masundire, H.; Angula, N.M.; Davies, J.; Molefe, C.; Hegga, S. Building transformative capacity in southern Africa: Surfacing knowledge and challenging structures through participatory Vulnerability and Risk Assessments. Act. Res. 2019, 17, 19–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aragón, A.O.; Glenzer, K. Untaming aid through action research: Seeking transformative reflective action. Act. Res. 2017, 15, 3–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Preston, B.L.; Yuen, E.J.; Westaway, R.M. Putting vulnerability to climate change on the map: A review of approaches, benefits, and risks. Sustain. Sci. 2011, 6, 177–202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morchain, D.; Prati, G.; Kelsey, F.; Ravon, L. What if gender became an essential, standard element of Vulnerability Assessments? Gen. Dev. 2015, 23, 481–496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jordan, A.; Huitema, D.; Hildén, M.; van Asselt, H.; Rayner, T.J.; Schoenefeld, J.J.; Tosun, J.; Forster, J.; Boasson, E.L. Emergence of polycentric climate governance and its future prospects. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2015, 5, 977–982. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Di Gregorio, M.; Fatorelli, L.; Paavola, J.; Locatelli, B.; Pramova, E.; Nurrochmat, D.R.; May, P.H.; Brockhaus, M.; Sari, I.M.; Kusumadewi, S.D. Multi-level governance and power in climate change policy networks. Glob. Environ. Chang. 2019, 54, 64–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kern, K. Cities as leaders in EU multi-level climate governance: Embedded upscaling of local experiments in Europe. Environ. Pol. 2019, 28, 125–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WRA (Water Resource Agency). Second Upgrading Potential Inundation Maps of New Taipei City and Keelung City; WRA: Taipei, Taiwan, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Ke, K.Y.; Lin, Y.J.; Tan, Y.C.; Pan, T.Y.; Tai, L.L.; Lee, C.A. Enhancing Local Disaster Management Network through Developing Resilient Community in New Taipei City, Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Shu, Z.Y. Frequent Flooding in Long-Chan Rd. the City Council Member Requested the Agriculture Department to Improve the Drainage System, China Times Web Site, 2019/08/15. Available online: https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20190815003896-260405?chdtv (accessed on 8 December 2020).
|RCP8.5 2021–2040 GCM Rainfall Ratios|
|Average of all GCMs for May–September||1.19|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
He, C.-Y.; Tung, C.-P.; Lin, Y.-J. Applying the DRCA Risk Template on the Flood-Prone Disaster Prevention Community Due to Climate Change. Sustainability 2021, 13, 891. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020891
He C-Y, Tung C-P, Lin Y-J. Applying the DRCA Risk Template on the Flood-Prone Disaster Prevention Community Due to Climate Change. Sustainability. 2021; 13(2):891. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020891Chicago/Turabian Style
He, Chin-Yu, Ching-Pin Tung, and Yong-Jun Lin. 2021. "Applying the DRCA Risk Template on the Flood-Prone Disaster Prevention Community Due to Climate Change" Sustainability 13, no. 2: 891. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020891