Applications of Nanomaterials for Heavy Metal Removal from Water and Soil: A Review
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology for Science and Education Combined with Science and Technology Innovation Base, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China
Technical Innovation Center of Mine Geological Environmental Restoration Engineering in Southern Karst Area, Ministry of Natural Resources, Guilin 541004, China
Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 200136, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2021, 13(2), 713; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020713
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 3 January 2021 / Accepted: 8 January 2021 / Published: 13 January 2021
Heavy metals are toxic and non-biodegradable environmental contaminants that seriously threaten human health. The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated water and soil is an urgent issue from both environmental and biological points of view. Recently, nanomaterials with excellent adsorption capacities, great chemical reactivity, active atomicity, and environmentally friendly performance have attracted widespread interest as potential adsorbents for heavy metal removal. This review first introduces the application of nanomaterials for removing heavy metal ions from the environment. Then, the environmental factors affecting the adsorption of nanomaterials, their toxicity, and environmental risks are discussed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of applying nanomaterials in environmental remediation are discussed, which can provide perspectives for future in-depth studies and applications.