# Comparative Study of Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter Performance: A Case Study for Southern Coasts of the Caspian Sea

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Research Method

#### 2.1. Data Collection and Wave Scenario

#### 2.2. Hydrodynamics, and Performance Assessment Criterion

#### 2.3. Model Setup

## 3. Result and Discussion

#### 3.1. Wave-Converter Interaction

#### 3.2. Sensitivity Analysis

#### 3.3. Power Take-Off System

#### 3.4. Flap Response

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

WEC | Wave Energy Converter |

WEC-Sim | Wave Energy Converter Simulator |

PTO | Power Take-off |

OWC | Oscillating Water Column |

OSWEC | Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter |

WAFO | Wave Analysis for Fatigue and Oceanography |

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**Figure 1.**Marine wave energy converters technologies. The studied converter’s category is shown within red-dashed line (adapted from [33]).

**Figure 2.**Multiple oscillating surge wave energy converter types: (

**a**): Schematic diagram of a bottom-hinged OSWEC model equipped with a hydraulic power take-off system [43], (

**b**): A submerged OSWEC farm anchored to the seabed developed by AW-Energy in Vanta, Finland [44], (

**c**): OSWEC joint-floating model illustration [45].

**Figure 4.**Location and average depth of three ports on the Caspian Sea’s southern coasts (bathymetric data is collected using [53]).

**Figure 5.**Wave rise of three selected sites in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Nowshahr (central port), Anzali (west port), Amirabad (east port).

**Figure 6.**Numerical simulating in the WEC-Sim module, (adapted from [25]).

**Figure 7.**An illustration of the geometric dimensions and acting forces of the wave energy converters under consideration.

**Figure 8.**Determining the width of the oscillator based on the natural period of vibration (curved lines) and water depth [62].

**Figure 9.**The OSWEC geometric parameters designed specifically for Nowshahr port (in the

**left**), as well as the converter’s mesh-assembled flap and base (in the

**right**).

**Figure 10.**Records of the excitation force (

**a**), radiation damping force (

**b**), added mass force (

**c**), buoyancy restoring moment (

**d**), on the converter’s flap. Red arrows indicate the highest amounts in Nowshahr, Anzali and Amirabad ports.

**Figure 11.**Power output of converters with different flap heights over the range of peak period in installation sites.

**Figure 12.**Records of the power take-off moment of a converter with a 12,000 (Nsm/rad) damping coefficient of the PTO system. Green dashed lines indicate the highest amounts in Nowshahr port’s converter, and the red and blue dashed lines show the maximum of the variable in Anzali and Amirabad ports, respectively.

**Figure 13.**Non-dimensional capture factor over PTO damping coefficients from 5000 to 40,000 (Nsm/rad).

**Figure 14.**Total acting torque applied to the converters’ flaps in the ports studied throughout a run. In order to dismiss the unwanted results at the beginning of the oscillation, a ramp time of 100 s has been considered in the simulation (shown with red-dashed lines).

**Figure 15.**Records of the surge displacement (meters) and pitch rotation (degrees) of the converter’s flap. (

**a**): Nowshahr’s flap displacement, (

**b**): Anzali’s flap displacement, (

**c**): Amirabad’s flap displacement, (

**d**): Nowshahr’s flap rotation, (

**e**): Anzali’s flap rotation, (

**f**): Amirabad’s flap rotation. The red lines, respectively, show the highest amount of each variable.

**Table 1.**The statistical characteristics (peak wave period and significant height) of wave data collected along the Caspian Sea’s southern coasts.

Port | Amirabad | Nowshahr | Anzali | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Data | T (s) | Hs (m) | T (s) | Hs (m) | T (s) | Hs (m) |

Minimum | 1.29 | 0.09 | 2.19 | 0.13 | 1.93 | 0.11 |

Maximum | 9.71 | 4.48 | 16.53 | 4.62 | 16.53 | 5.45 |

Mean | 3.60 | 0.77 | 5.85 | 0.73 | 6.11 | 0.74 |

STD | 1.43 | 0.50 | 2.19 | 0.52 | 2.01 | 0.56 |

Dimension’s Name | Amount | |
---|---|---|

Width | Height | |

Flap specifications in Nowshahr port (m) | 21 | 6.7–7.7 |

Flap specifications in Anzali port (m) | 18 | 8.2–9.2 |

v Flap specifications in Amirabad port (m) | 23 | 6.0–8.0 |

Thickness the of oscillator flap (m) | 1.8 | |

Width of the oscillator base (m) | 18 | |

Thickness of the oscillator base (m) | 1.8 | |

Height of the oscillator base (m) | 1.8 | |

The distance between center of rotation and seafloor (m) | 2 | |

Initial Damping coefficient of PTO system ($\frac{Nsm}{rad}$) [63] | 12,000 | |

Distance between center of mass and surface of the flap (m) | −3.9 |

**Table 3.**The results of absorbed power, averaged capture factor and incident wave power in studied sites.

Port’s Name | Capture Factor (%) | Averaged Exploitable Power (Kw/m) | Averaged Absorbed Power (Kw/m) |
---|---|---|---|

Nowshahr | 62.9 | 26.8 | 16.7 |

Anzali | 48.8 | 22.3 | 10.9 |

Amirabad | 42.1 | 20.5 | 8.6 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Amini, E.; Asadi, R.; Golbaz, D.; Nasiri, M.; Naeeni, S.T.O.; Majidi Nezhad, M.; Piras, G.; Neshat, M.
Comparative Study of Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter Performance: A Case Study for Southern Coasts of the Caspian Sea. *Sustainability* **2021**, *13*, 10932.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910932

**AMA Style**

Amini E, Asadi R, Golbaz D, Nasiri M, Naeeni STO, Majidi Nezhad M, Piras G, Neshat M.
Comparative Study of Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter Performance: A Case Study for Southern Coasts of the Caspian Sea. *Sustainability*. 2021; 13(19):10932.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910932

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Amini, Erfan, Rojin Asadi, Danial Golbaz, Mahdieh Nasiri, Seyed Taghi Omid Naeeni, Meysam Majidi Nezhad, Giuseppe Piras, and Mehdi Neshat.
2021. "Comparative Study of Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter Performance: A Case Study for Southern Coasts of the Caspian Sea" *Sustainability* 13, no. 19: 10932.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910932