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Article

Transitioning to Low-Carbon Economies under the 2030 Agenda: Minimizing Trade-Offs and Enhancing Co-Benefits of Climate-Change Action for the SDGs

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German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), Tulpenfeld 6, 53113 Bonn, Germany
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Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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NewClimate Institute, Waidmarkt 11a, 50676 Cologne, Germany
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PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, P.O. Box 30314, 2500 GH The Hague, The Netherlands
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Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Silvio Matassa
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10774; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910774
Received: 17 July 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 28 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scientific Research on Sustainable Development Goals)
The 2030 Agenda with its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on climate change were adopted in 2015. Although independently defined, the two agreements are strongly interlinked. We developed a framework that scores the impacts of climate-change actions on all SDG targets based on directionality (i.e., trade-offs or co-benefits) and likelihood of occurrence (i.e., ubiquitous or context-dependent), and categorizes them by dependence on four key context dimensions—geographical, governance, time horizon and limited natural resources. Through an extensive literature review, we found that climate-change mitigation measures directly affect most SDGs and their targets, mostly through co-benefits. Improving energy efficiency, reducing energy-services demand and switching to renewables provide the most co-benefits. In contrast, carbon capture and storage and nuclear energy likely lead to multiple trade-offs. We show how understanding the relevant context dimensions facilitates policy design and policy mixes that enhance co-benefits and minimize trade-offs. Finally, by assessing the prevalence of climate-change mitigation measures in G20 countries, we found that measures with more co-benefits are more frequently adopted. Our study advances the knowledge of climate–SDG interactions, contributing to climate and sustainable development governance research, and facilitating policy design for a joint implementation of the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; sustainable development goals; climate-change policy; policy coherence; G20; domestic policies climate change; sustainable development goals; climate-change policy; policy coherence; G20; domestic policies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iacobuţă, G.I.; Höhne, N.; van Soest, H.L.; Leemans, R. Transitioning to Low-Carbon Economies under the 2030 Agenda: Minimizing Trade-Offs and Enhancing Co-Benefits of Climate-Change Action for the SDGs. Sustainability 2021, 13, 10774. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910774

AMA Style

Iacobuţă GI, Höhne N, van Soest HL, Leemans R. Transitioning to Low-Carbon Economies under the 2030 Agenda: Minimizing Trade-Offs and Enhancing Co-Benefits of Climate-Change Action for the SDGs. Sustainability. 2021; 13(19):10774. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910774

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iacobuţă, Gabriela I., Niklas Höhne, Heleen L. van Soest, and Rik Leemans. 2021. "Transitioning to Low-Carbon Economies under the 2030 Agenda: Minimizing Trade-Offs and Enhancing Co-Benefits of Climate-Change Action for the SDGs" Sustainability 13, no. 19: 10774. https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910774

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