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Investigating Smart City Development Based on Green Buildings, Electrical Vehicles and Feasible Indicators

Escola Técnica Superior dÉnginyeria Industrial de Barcelona (ETSEIB), Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya (UPC), Av. Diagonal, 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Astronautics, Electrical and Energy Engineering (DIAEE), Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
Department of Math’s, Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, North Umbria University Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK
Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy and Power Systems, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research and Optimisation (AIRO), Torrens University Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
Yonsei Frontier Lab (YFL), Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Korea
School of Engineering and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
Solar Thermal Vacuum Engineering Research Group, London Centre for Energy Engineering, School of Engineering, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London SE1 0AA, UK
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis New City 1468995513, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marianna Jacyna, Konrad Lewczuk and Emilian Szczepański
Sustainability 2021, 13(14), 7808;
Received: 13 June 2021 / Revised: 8 July 2021 / Accepted: 8 July 2021 / Published: 13 July 2021
With a goal of achieving net-zero emissions by developing Smart Cities (SCs) and industrial decarbonization, there is a growing desire to decarbonize the renewable energy sector by accelerating green buildings (GBs) construction, electric vehicles (EVs), and ensuring long-term stability, with the expectation that emissions will need to be reduced by at least two thirds by 2035 and by at least 90% by 2050. Implementing GBs in urban areas and encouraging the use of EVs are cornerstones of transition towards SCs, and practical actions that governments can consider to help with improving the environment and develop SCs. This paper investigates different aspects of smart cities development and introduces new feasible indicators related to GBs and EVs in designing SCs, presenting existing barriers to smart cities development, and solutions to overcome them. The results demonstrate that feasible and achievable policies such as the development of the zero-energy, attention to design parameters, implementation of effective indicators for GBs and EVs, implementing strategies to reduce the cost of production of EVs whilst maintaining good quality standards, load management, and integrating EVs successfully into the electricity system, are important in smart cities development. Therefore, strategies to governments should consider the full dynamics and potential of socio-economic and climate change by implementing new energy policies on increasing investment in EVs, and GBs development by considering energy, energy, techno-economic, and environmental benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: smart cities; policy; green buildings; electric vehicles; indicators smart cities; policy; green buildings; electric vehicles; indicators
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MDPI and ACS Style

Razmjoo, A.; Nezhad, M.M.; Kaigutha, L.G.; Marzband, M.; Mirjalili, S.; Pazhoohesh, M.; Memon, S.; Ehyaei, M.A.; Piras, G. Investigating Smart City Development Based on Green Buildings, Electrical Vehicles and Feasible Indicators. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7808.

AMA Style

Razmjoo A, Nezhad MM, Kaigutha LG, Marzband M, Mirjalili S, Pazhoohesh M, Memon S, Ehyaei MA, Piras G. Investigating Smart City Development Based on Green Buildings, Electrical Vehicles and Feasible Indicators. Sustainability. 2021; 13(14):7808.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Razmjoo, Armin, Meysam M. Nezhad, Lisa G. Kaigutha, Mousa Marzband, Seyedali Mirjalili, Mehdi Pazhoohesh, Saim Memon, Mehdi A. Ehyaei, and Giuseppe Piras. 2021. "Investigating Smart City Development Based on Green Buildings, Electrical Vehicles and Feasible Indicators" Sustainability 13, no. 14: 7808.

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