- The identification of a list of barriers that are hindering the penetration of renewable energy.
- The understanding of hierarchy structure for the barriers to obtain a clear understanding of the various layers of the barriers.
- The characterization of the barriers as driving barriers, dependent barriers, independent barriers, and autonomous barriers.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Barriers to Renewable Energy Penetration in the Context of Bangladesh
2.2. Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM)
3. Methods, Materials and Research Tools
- Step 1: (a) Barriers are identified from peer reviewed literature and (b) validation through an expert consultation process.
- Step 2: A pairwise conceptual relationship is established between the barriers to develop a Structural Self-Interaction Matrix (SSIM).
- Step 3: An initial reachability matrix is formed using an SSIM by replacing symbols through binary numbers. The final reachability matrix is developed by using the transitivity concept to obtain higher-order links to incorporate the indirect relationships among the barriers using the following relation:
- Element P related to Q;
- Q related to R;
- Implies R is necessarily related to P.
- Step 4: The barriers are positioned into different levels by utilizing the final reachability matrix.
- Step 5: The ISM model is presented using the partitioned level and the relationship given in the reachability matrix.
- Step 6: MICMAC analysis.
- Step 7: A final figure to show clusters of barriers by their driving power and dependence power.
- Infrastructure and innovation: (technical barrier—1) 
4. Results and Discussions
4.1. SSIM: Structural Self-Interaction Matrix
- Use symbol V: if barrier i helps in diminishing barrier j;
- Use symbol A: if barrier j helps in diminishing barrier i;
- Use symbol X: if barrier i and j can help each other to alleviate the barrier;
- Use symbol O: if barrier i and j are unrelated.
4.2. Reachability Matrix
4.2.1. Initial Reachability Matrix
4.2.2. Final Reachability Matrix
4.3. Level Partitioning
4.4. Barrier Hierarchy
4.5. MICMAC Analysis
7. Limitations and Future Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|ISM||Interpretive Structural Modeling|
|MICMAC||Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification|
|INDC||Intended Nationally Determined Contribution|
|SDG||Sustainable development goal|
|GHG||Green House Gas|
|SSIM||Structural Self-Interaction Matrix|
|IPP||Independent Power Producer|
|IDCOL||Infrastructure Development Company Limited|
|BPERC||Bangladesh Power and Electricity Research Council|
|SREDA||Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority|
|SHS||Solar Home System|
|R&D||Research and Development|
|RPO||Renewable Energy Purchase Obligation|
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|SL||Energy Source/Conversion Technology||Potential|
|1||Solar (grid connected solar PV)||50,174 MW|
|2||Solar concentration power||100 MW|
|3||Solar home system (off-grid)||200 MW|
|3||Wind turbine||4614 MW|
|5||Rice straw||171 MW|
|6||Municipal solid waste (Dhaka city)||20 MW|
|8||Hydro (large)||545 MW|
|9||Hydro (small)||215 MW|
|10||Geothermal||Potential temperature gradient at different locations available|
|11||Tidal and wave||Not available|
|Disciplinary Background||Gender||Age Group|
|Sl. No.||Symbol of (i, j) Cell in SSIM||Substituted in Initial Reachability Matrix|
|Cell (i, j)||Cell (j, i)|
|1||1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13||1||1|
|2||2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13||2, 4||2|
|3||3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|4||2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13||4||4|
|5||5, 8, 9||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13||5|
|6||5, 6, 8, 9||1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13||6|
|7||5, 6, 7, 8, 9||7||7|
|8||8||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13||8||I|
|9||8, 9||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13||9|
|10||5, 8, 9, 10||10||10|
|11||3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|12||5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|13||5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|1||1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13||1||1|
|2||2, 3, 5, 6, 911, 12, 13||2, 4||2|
|3||3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|4||2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13||4||4|
|5||5, 9||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13||5|
|6||5, 6, 9||1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13||6|
|7||5, 6, 7, 9||7||7|
|9||9||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13||9||II|
|10||5, 9, 10||10||10|
|11||3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|12||5, 6, 9, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|13||5, 6, 9, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|1||1, 3, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13||1||1|
|2||2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13||2, 4||2|
|3||3, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|4||2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13||4||4|
|5||5||1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13||5||III|
|6||5, 6||1, 2, 3, 46, 7, 11, 12, 13||6|
|7||5, 6, 7||7||7|
|11||3, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|12||5, 6, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|13||5, 6, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|1||1, 3, 6, 11, 12, 13||1||1|
|2||2, 3, 6, 11, 12, 13||2, 4||2|
|3||3, 6, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|4||2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13||4||4|
|6||6||1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 13||6||IV|
|11||3, 6, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|12||6, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|13||6, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13|
|1||1, 3, 11, 12, 13||1||1|
|2||2, 3, 11, 12, 13||2, 4||2|
|3||3, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|4||2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||4||4|
|11||3, 11, 12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11|
|12||12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13||V|
|13||12, 13||1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12, 13||12, 13||V|
|1||1, 3, 11||1||1|
|2||2, 3, 11||2, 4||2|
|3||3, 11||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11||VI|
|4||2, 3, 4, 11||4||4|
|11||3, 11||1, 2, 3, 4, 11||3, 11||VI|
|Dimension||Barrier||Solutions||Action Taken/Gaps Persist|
|1||Human Capacity||Shortage of trained manpower with the right skill.||Countywide extensive teaching and training program through universities, colleges, and human resources development institutes to create a skilled workforce in the renewable energy sector [117,118], engage technical and academic experts, overseas returnees with knowledge of modern technologies for boosting local manufacturing of renewable energy-related equipments [117,119].||This gap and need for new academic programs to develop energy experts in Bangladesh is expressed officially .|
The establishment of the Bangladesh Power and Electricity Research Council (BPERC) in 2015 is a step  towards that. Fragmented R&D activities have started with international funding support. The Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL) is managing the World Bank fund of one million USD to support the R&D initiatives by in-country research teams to develop several R&D services .
|2||Institutional—1||Absence of single monitoring authority. Lengthy and difficult approval process, time delay in decision making.||Establish an apex institution [117,118,123] for renewable energy integration, utilize learning by doing, coordinate various implementation authorities, formulate policies such as single widow clearance for the timely implementation of renewable energy projects . Standardizes bureaucratic procedures for approval, licensing, quality control  etc.||Sustainable and Renewable Energy Development Authority (SREDA) was formed in 2014 as the leading governing authority to coordinate renewable and sustainable energy development activities. The 2030 master plan supports SREDA’s goal and allocates the budget for implementing renewable energy projects. Its effectiveness is yet to be proved, as progress so far is behind the NDC targets . To ensure clean electricity access in the off-grid rural area, state-owned IDCOL started the renewable energy program in 2003 that mainly focused on the solar home system (SHS) .|
|3||Institutional—2||Lack of inclusiveness.||Regular updates on: stakeholders, experts, innovations, consumer involvement, policy alternatives [118,125].||A forum, dialogue platform is imperative where several actors regularly participate in showcasing innovation, policy debate and dialogue for coordinated action.|
|4||Policy and governance—1||Top-down policy formulation methodology.||Involving various stakeholders and utilizing their knowledge at various stages, especially for country context issues such as the Chinese push–pull strategy, German innovation, consumer involvement, and later stage feed-in tariff (FIT), Indian land acquisition policy [118,125]. Policy formulation can be flexible to involve investors, academia, experts and all relevant stakeholders.||There is a felt need to overcome ritualistic stakeholder participation to make empowered citizens’ involvement effective in rule making .|
|5||Policy and governance—2||Low relative priority to renewables. Renewables are not considered as a viable alternative at the policy formulation level due to their intermittency.||Countries are ramping up renewable energy targets very fast, e.g., neighboring country India targeted to increase its renewable energy generation capacity from 80 GW in 2014 to 175 GW in 2022 . In the year 2019, the capacity for generating renewable energy has risen 7.4% (+176 GW) around the world .||The government of Bangladesh formulated a renewable energy policy in 2008 to increase renewables’ share in the energy mix , but progress is slow.|
|6||Technical—1||Limited grid integration facility for intermittent renewable power supply. Uncertainty in innovation.||Proper grid planning and demand management to ensure grid connectivity for renewables [118,125,129]. Increase investment in R&D and establish key national laboratories for technological advancement, efficiency improvement, domestic production of equipment and spare parts, developing standardization, quality control, testing, certification system [117,125,130].||The process has begun to assess how to integrate renewables into the power supply and draw up the necessary standards, procedures and planning financed by the Asian Development Bank‘s Bangladesh Power System Enhancement and Efficiency Improvement Project . |
There is no consensus yet about the existing grid system’s potential for renewable energy penetration . Experiments with solar mini-grids and net metering for the rooftop solar program are at the initial stage [108,131].
|7||Technical—2||Intermittent nature of renewable energy.||Emphasize findings on energy storage technology development .||On a limited scale, local institutions have started R&D to design and develop the storage system for intermittent renewables .|
|8||Economic and finance—1||Absence of business model. Lack of commercial-scale renewable industry and absence of market-oriented framework.||Steps can be taken to increase financial availability, investor confidence, the availability of equipment and spare parts, the market demand of renewable energy through green banking, special funds, loan guarantees, and priority lending to renewable energy projects. Encourage and promote local manufacturers, increase R&D support to overcome the technological gap, proper testing and standardization facilities to ensure the availability of equipment and spare parts for the renewable energy project. The market demand for renewable energy can be increased by enforcing Renewable Energy Purchase Obligation (RPO), tax credits, etc. [117,118,123,129,132].||Partially subsidized solar home system (SHS), alternative financial mechanisms, feed-in tariff, fiscal incentives, leveraging of existing microfinance to overcome affordability barrier, and experimentation with service delivery systems are all taking place with the support of multilateral funding agencies at various project levels [37,94,126].|
|9||Economic and finance—2||Subsidies in conventional fuel, locked in fossil fuel subsidy.||The renewable energy projects can be made attractive to the investors through several initiatives such as on-grid tariff subsidy, upfront subsidy and incentives to the project developers and innovators, feed-in tariff, net metering facility or other financial support schemes, accelerated depreciation benefit, tax holiday, the price correction of fossil fuel, and the execution of pollution tax [80,118,123,130,133].||Fossil fuel subsidies were reduced by price adjustment with an amount of USD 3813 million in 2014 to USD 1691 million in 2019. Transport oil subsidies cut gradually from USD 1022 million in 2011 to USD 107 million in 2014 and completely removed thereafter .|
|10||Resource and environment||Inadequate non-cropland area for solar energy and uncertainty of biomass energy. Wind energy potential is low in Bangladesh, except some costal zones.||A special fund can be created to find the potential location of renewable resources and conduct other related exploration activities. India has adopted a land acquisition policy for large-scale solar projects [117,118].||The 7th five-year plan, formulated in 2015, targets to diversify the investments for the development and utilization of geothermal, ocean and tidal energy. Under this plan, the research and development activities on geothermal, ocean and tidal energy have also been encouraged . In Bangladesh, the government has ruled that agricultural land cannot be used for the solar energy project. However, most of its land is fertile for agricultural activity, and the unused non-agricultural land is very limited in such a densely populated country.|
|11||Informational—1||Lack of supply-side information.||A national database consisting of both supply and demand-side information can be developed .||Diverse sources of information from various official publications such as annual reports, planning documents, national statistical yearbook, news, and announcements need to be searched and matched. Recent efforts towards project-specific data exist in various platforms [94,135,136,137,138,139]. SREDA has started to develop a national database of renewable energy consisting of supply-side information .|
|12||Informational—2||Lack of demand-side data.||A national database consisting of both supply- and demand-side information needs to be developed .||While efforts are multiple on understanding supply potential, demand-side potential assessment is lagging behind|
|13||Informational—3||Lack of awareness.||To raise public awareness, more targeted events involving scientists, academic institutions, media, NGO, etc., are needed [80,123,140].||A comprehensive strategic plan and articulation are lacking.|
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