Mental Health and the City in the Post-COVID-19 Era
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Multi-Aspect COVID-19 Effects
3.2. Mental Health and COVID-19
3.3. Space: Shift into Virtuality and Mental Health Issues
- Sports facilities are a good example [87,88,89]. It is worth mentioning that the match of the 1/8 final of the Champions League between Atalanta Bergamo (IT) and Valencia (ES) at San Siro in Milan on 19 February 2020  played a key role in the development of the epidemic in Europe in the initial phase, with about 45,000 fans at the stadium. The number of fans from Bergamo at this event (about 40,000) compared to the number of fans from Valencia (about 5000) who came back to their homes after a loud celebration of victory significantly contributed to a faster outbreak of the disease in Lombardy and the whole of Italy, and a little later in Spain. It must be noted that 40,000 fans from Bergamo are approximately 1/3 of the total population of this city.
- Another example, from Poland, shows that the monocentric capital Warsaw (1.7 million) was the leader in the number of identified cases (March 2021) at the beginning of the pandemic until polycentric GZM Conurbation in Silesian Voivodeship (2.2 million)  had outbreaks of the disease in coal mines and other industries (in a specific collective work condition). The development of the disease in Silesia does not result from living in a dense city, but from the functioning of the characteristic labour and spatial structures at work—mining. In consequence, the particular increase in COVID-19 cases did not only occur in the GZM conurbation itself, but also in cities and even in smaller satellite towns and villages that are inhabited by coal miners.
- public communication nodes and public places;
- employee-spatial structures (collective work), e.g., heavy industry centres, mines, sewing rooms, sorting plants, where, due to their function and specificity, it is not possible to create conditions for social distancing;
- office work;
- large sports and event facilities;
- collective residence facilities and hospitals.
3.4. Urban Sprawl and Mental Health
- a dense city as an effective (economically, organizationally, communicatively) environment which can allow the use of commonly known measures of prevention, treatment and care of mental health;
- the protection and expansion of green area systems in densely urbanised areas (especially in dense residential districts) as an important factor influencing mental health (prevention and treatment), wellbeing and in persuading people to live in the city;
- the landscape outside the city, rural and protected areas as a safety valve for the wellbeing of whole societies and good mental health conditions, as well as for natural, environmental and ecological reasons.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Bil, J.S.; Buława, B.; Świerzawski, J. Mental Health and the City in the Post-COVID-19 Era. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7533. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147533
Bil JS, Buława B, Świerzawski J. Mental Health and the City in the Post-COVID-19 Era. Sustainability. 2021; 13(14):7533. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147533Chicago/Turabian Style
Bil, Jakub S., Bartłomiej Buława, and Jakub Świerzawski. 2021. "Mental Health and the City in the Post-COVID-19 Era" Sustainability 13, no. 14: 7533. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13147533