Farmers’ Market Usage, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Meals at Home and Health–Evidence from Washington, DC
2. Data and Methods
2.1. Data Collection
2.2. Variables and Measures
2.3. Empirical Strategy
3.1. Link between Shopping at Farmers’ Market and Shopper’s Health Behaviors
- Statement 1: “It is easier for me to purchase fresh produce during the market season because of the farmers’ markets” (increased access)
- Statement 2: “I consume more fresh produce during the market season because of the farmers’ markets” (increased consumption of shoppers)
- Statement 3: “My family members consume more fresh produce during the market season because of the farmers’ markets” (increased consumption of family members).
3.2. Statistical Analyses Results
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Health Indicators||Weekly meals away from home||3.6||3.2||0||22||360|
|Daily time spent in preparing meal (mins)||44.3||27.5||0||200||362|
|Daily fresh FV consumption (cups)||3.4||2.1||0||18||360|
|Farmers’ market Usage||FM usage (percent of FM purchase in total household food purchase)||4.6||7.36||0.04||48.07||358|
|Bachelor’s degree or higher||0.60||--||--||--||364|
|Living with children under 18||0.24||--||--||--||364|
|FV Consumption (log)||Meal Preparation Time (log)||Meals Bought||BMI (log)||FV Consumption (log)-with Market Accessibility as IV||Meal Preparation Time (log)-with Market Accessibility as IV|
|Farmers’ market usage (log)||0.065 ***||0.094 **||−0.271 **||0.008||0.254 **||0.377 *|
|Bachelor’s degree or higher||0.195 **||0.093||0.401||−0.068 **|
|Male||−0.157 **||−0.126||0.045||0.070 **||−0.085||0.016|
(Non-Hispanic White as default)
|−0.222 **||−0.256||1.136||0.072 **|
|Non-Hispanic, Other (Non-Hispanic White as default)||−0.356 ***||−0.010||0.808||−0.011|
|Hispanic (Non-Hispanic White as default)||−0.034||−0.175||0.558||0.036|
|Non-Hispanic, 2+ Race (Non-Hispanic White as default)||−0.510 *||0.080||2.716 *||0.041|
|Household income||0.006||0.012||−0.084 *||0.002||0.017||0.039 *|
|constant.||0.810 ***||3.309 ***||4.988 ***||3.300 ***||1.690 **||5.552 ***|
|Independent Variable Instrumented: Log Farmers’ Market Usage||Dependent Variable|
|Statistics||(log) FV||(log) meal preparation time||(log) meals bought|
|Instrument: whether someone visits two or more markets||Coefficient||0.75 ***||0.74 ***||0.64 **|
|F-statistics for IV||12.16||12.15||8.84|
|Instrument: non-health incentivized||Coefficient||−0.119||−0.15||−0.252|
|F-statistics for IV||9.49||10.04||6.11|
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Hu, X.; Clarke, L.W.; Zendehdel, K. Farmers’ Market Usage, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Meals at Home and Health–Evidence from Washington, DC. Sustainability 2021, 13, 7437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137437
Hu X, Clarke LW, Zendehdel K. Farmers’ Market Usage, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Meals at Home and Health–Evidence from Washington, DC. Sustainability. 2021; 13(13):7437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137437Chicago/Turabian Style
Hu, Xiaochu, Lorraine W. Clarke, and Kamran Zendehdel. 2021. "Farmers’ Market Usage, Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, Meals at Home and Health–Evidence from Washington, DC" Sustainability 13, no. 13: 7437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137437