Smart and Resilient Urban Futures for Sustainability in the Post COVID-19 Era: A Review of Policy Responses on Urban Mobility
- What kind of policies did cities adopt during the pandemic with regards to urban mobility? How did they respond to the pandemic since the factors of their vulnerability are bound in the built environment itself and the urban planning paradigm which encourages density? (RQ1)
- When the solution to the problem seems to be social distancing, how have urban planners and city authorities adapted to the emerging needs and what was the impact of their actions on urban growth and sustainability? (RQ2)
- In this opportunity for change, what is the role of technology? (RQ3)
2. Covid-19 and the Future of Cities: Three Challenges for Urban Centers
2.1. Re-Inventing Urban Planning Through the Lens of Smart Growth and Responsive Planning
2.2. The Future of Mobility and the Challenges for Urban Public Transport
2.3. Smart City Technologies: An Unexplored Pool of Potential Solutions
3. Research Design and Methodology
- COVID Mobility Works (https://www.covidmobilityworks.org/, accessed on 30 November 2020), an independent platform dedicated to collecting, synthesizing, and sharing mobility initiatives that are keeping the world moving during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Cities for Global Health (https://www.citiesforglobalhealth.org/, accessed on 30 November 2020), a repository launched by Metropolis and the Euro-Latin-American Alliance of Cooperation among Cities (AL-LAs), with initiatives, projects, and actions started by cities that show how local and regional governments are managing the crisis and planning their recovery.
- The OECD library of city policy responses to COVID-19 . Additionally, the International Transport Forum (ITF) of OECD has published 3 relevant transport briefs: “Re-spacing our Cities for Resilience,” “Electric mobility: Taking the Pulse in Times of Coronavirus”, and “How Transport Supports the Health System in Corona Times”. All reports compile case studies from around the world.
- The National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) library’s “Streets for Pandemic Response and Recovery”  (https://nacto.org/program/covid19/, accessed on 15 September 2020), documenting pandemic rapid-response strategies and emerging practices from cities and transit agencies around the world.
- The EIT Urban Mobility COVID-19 repository  (https://www.eiturbanmobility.eu/covid-19-what-is-happening-in-the-area-of-urban-mobility/, accessed on 15 September 2020), an initiative by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT) that publishes news and articles in regard to what is happening in the area of mobility during the pandemic.
- The Polis Network EU (https://www.polisnetwork.eu/document/resources-covid-19-mobility/, accessed on 15 September 2020), a network of European cities and regions working together to develop innovative technologies and policies for local transport that created a section showcasing both cities’ and regions’ mobility-related responses during confinement measures and plans for after confinement measures have been lifted.
- The Pedestrian & Bicycle Information Center (Pedbikeinfo), which has collected 879 initiatives that promote cycling through different means in the context of the pandemic and beyond.
- Legislative and regulatory, including guidelines, rules, limits, and binding requirements, which in cases of noncompliance will be followed by sanctions, as well as any authorization, license, or permit under transport-related legislation;
- Planning, including land use, urban planning, and zoning;
- Public or private investments, particularly investments in infrastructure;
- Economic and financial, such as revenue-generating instruments, subsidies, licenses, user benefits, cost reductions, and redistributions;
- Educational/information based, including education and training, information campaigns, capacity building, monitoring, and access to information;
- Organizational and cooperation-based instruments such as voluntary commitments, negotiations, networks, improvements/changes in the transport services offerings, adapting to emerging needs, etc.
- Relieve the pressure on the health system and facilitate medical professionals, essential workers, and COVID-19 patients;
- Provide alternative means of transport;
- Promote green and active mobility;
- Management of public space;
- Secure health standards in the transport system, reduce the risk of contamination.
- Digitization: activities performed in digital space but routines that govern these activities (and their underlying rules) remain unchanged, as performed in the physical or social space of cities;
- Optimization: activities performed in digital space, but routines that govern these activities are optimized to the best configuration by automation and AI;
- Innovation: activities performed in digital space, but routines that govern these activities are replaced by more fit ones, defined within a cyber-physical system of innovation.
4. Analysis of the Urban Responses to the Pandemic
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|1||Seoul||Use of advanced tracing techniques such as geolocalization data, bank-card usage, and video surveillance for contact tracing and to ensure social distancing.|
|2||Beijing||Trains outfitted with smart surveillance cameras that can detect passengers who are not wearing masks.|
|3||Kinshasa||An SMS system developed in a hackathon makes it possible to trace the chain of contamination by identifying people who have used the same public transport vehicle with a virus carrier.|
|4||Bogotá||A hackathon was organized for the exploitation of data to monitor the impact and reduce the probability of transmission in public transportation.|
|5||Kigali, Nice||Drones with megaphones ask people to stay home.|
|6||Cape Town||The Department of Health has surveillance systems for screening and monitoring cases with a travel history and close contacts within the affected areas.|
|7||Mexico City||City partners with Google Maps and Waze to monitor mobility trends and for telesurveillance of concentrations of people.|
|8||Portland||Micromobility companies offer data to study transport behavior and design COVID-19 responses.|
|9||Barcelona||An app shows bus occupancy levels.|
|10||Fukuoka||The municipality provides congestion information during weekday morning rush hours.|
|11||Tokyo||Digital contact tracing service notifies users if someone who used the same facilities tests positive for COVID-19.|
|12||Katowice||An open-source database with on demand travel services.|
|13||Tokyo||One-stop database on the real-time COVID-19 situation, including the number of infected people, their status, features, number of inquiries to the call center, and number of people using the subway.|
|14||Sydney, Newcastle||Free cycling lessons.|
|15||Vancouver||Online dashboard to inform people of the city’s emergency response to the spread of COVID-19 and how vehicle, bicycle, and pedestrian traffic has evolved.|
|16||Austin||Signal adjustments to optimize timing for essential trips.|
|17||Chicago||Public awareness campaign to educate transit riders and workers on new safety and preventative measures to reduce community transmission.|
|18||Santa Monica, |
|Unlimited rides with shared bicycles.|
|19||Bogotá, Vancouver, |
Denver, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., San Diego, Kansas City, New York, Boston, Chattanooga,
California and Santa Monica, Cardiff, Glasgow, London, Moscow
|Free access (limited or unlimited time or membership) to an e-bicycle fleet for medical workers/volunteers and couriers.|
|20||Baltimore, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, |
Portland, San Francisco, Tampa,
|Free access (limited or unlimited time or membership) to a scooter for medical workers or volunteers.|
|21||Budapest||Reduction in the fees in the bicycle-sharing system.|
|22||Nottingham||Financial incentives for bike purchase and bike donations.|
|23||Amsterdam||Offer of free bikes to students.|
|24||Birmingham||Free bicycle stands are offered to companies, hospitals, schools, and other organizations.|
|Increased fleet of shared micromobility (bikes and scooters) to prevent crowding in public means of transport.|
|26||Sydney, Brisbane||Automated and smart pedestrian crossing.|
|27||Abu Dhabi, Paris, |
Nancy (not free)
|A free on-demand microtransit shuttle service for healthcare workers.|
|28||Columbus||On-demand micromobility service using surplus vehicles.|
|29||Columbus||On-demand transit pilot in specific areas to help customers who are experiencing lost fixed-route service.|
|30||Auckland, Santiago, Buenos Aires, Brooklyn, Athens, Victoria, Montreal, London, Paris||Extended sidewalks to create more space for physical distancing using asphalt ramps, white safety posts, and paint.|
|31||Sydney||Allocation of funds for pop-up street improvement.|
|32||Jinja||Redesign of central market and traffic flow to maintain social distancing.|
|33||Montevideo, Palo Alto, Salt Lake City, |
|Pedestrianization of streets.|
|34||Amsterdam, Cardiff||Transforming a shopping street into a one-way street for pedestrians and bikes.|
|35||Birmingham||Creation of jogging lanes.|
|36||Sydney, Auckland, Cali, Mexico City, Bogotá, Quito, San Borja, Lima, Montreal, Paris, Brussels, Turin, Leeds, Leicester||Pop-up (temporary) cycleways and acceleration of the extension of the cycling network.|
|37||Berlin||Expansion of cycling lanes.|
|38||Buenos Aires||Provision or expansion of transit-only/transit-priority lanes to ensure surface-level transit.|
|39||Banjarmasin||Adapting school zone drop-off and pick-up areas to ensure social distancing.|
|40||Montreal, Vancouver||Increase in the number of green spaces/pop-up plazas.|
|41||Thessaloniki, New York, Milan, Paris||Closure of open spaces such as parks or waterfronts.|
|42||Denver||Closure of parking space and allocation to pedestrians.|
|43||San Francisco, Montreal, Oakland, |
Portland, San Diego,
Seattle, Milan, Brussels, Douglas (Isle of Man)
|“Slow streets”: reduced speed limits and closed streets for cars.|
|44||Chattanooga, Athens, |
|Wider sidewalks (through the conversion of parking spots) for restaurants and businesses.|
Warsaw (only for health workers)
|Free parking 24 h a day in the central area to avoid the concentration of people and free circulation of vehicles.|
|46||Kazan, San Francisco||Essential workers are allowed to make use of taxi services for free.|
|47||Lagoa da Pampulha||Restriction of the circulation of pedestrians and vehicles on the most-visited spots in the city.|
|48||Denver, Mississauga, San Jose, New York, Madison, Los Angeles, Columbus, |
|Suspension of the parking enforcement policy.|
|49||Boston||Cancelation of parking tickets given to healthcare workers.|
|50||Chicago||Subsidies for cab drivers and owners to make sure they can keep operating.|
|51||New York, Columbus, San Francisco||Deemed bicycle shops essential businesses.|
|52||Lima||Temporary suspension of the collection of tolls for health personnel.|
|53||Nice, Budapest, Manchester, Madrid||Free public transport for medical workers.|
|54||Taipei||Discounted Uber rides for medical professionals.|
|55||Chicago||Surveying the business community’s ridership demands and support-related planning efforts.|
|56||Taipei||Quarantine Taxi Service for people in need of medical attention.|
|57||Beijing||In-app metro reservation system.|
|58||Gurugram||Buses transport passengers/travelers from the airport to quarantine locations.|
|59||Gurugram, Barcelona||Buses transport medical teams and COVID-19 patients to and from hospitals.|
|60||Hong Kong||Use of a robot for deep cleaning and decontamination in train compartments and stations.|
- Scott, M. Covid-19, Place-making and Health. Plan. Theory Pr. 2020, 21, 343–348. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Karuri-Sebina, G.; Haegeman, K.-H.; Ratanawaraha, A. Urban futures: Anticipating a world of cities. Foresight 2016, 18, 449–453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sharifi, A.; Khavarian-Garmsir, A.R. The COVID-19 pandemic: Impacts on cities and major lessons for urban planning, design, and management. Sci. Total. Environ. 2020, 749, 142391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Huang, J.; Wang, H.; Fan, M.; Zhuo, A.; Sun, Y.; Li, Y. Understanding the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Transportation-Related Behaviors with Human Mobility Data. In Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining, Virtual Event, CA, USA, 23–27 August 2020; pp. 3443–3450. [Google Scholar]
- Tirachini, A.; Cats, O. COVID-19 and Public Transportation: Current assessment, prospects and research needs. J. Public Transp. 2020, 22, 1–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lozzi, G.; Rodrigues, M.; Marcucci, E.; Teoh, T.; Gatta, V.; Pacelli, V. Research for TRAN Committee—COVID-19 and Urban Mobility: Impacts and Perspectives; European Parliament: Brussels, Belgium, 2020.
- EIT. COVID-19: What is Happening in the Area of Urban Mobility. 2020. Available online: https://eit.europa.eu/news-events/news/covid-19-what-happening-area-urban-mobility (accessed on 26 December 2020).
- Papa, R.; Galderisi, A.; Vigo Majello, M.C.; Saretta, E. Smart and Resilient Cities. A Systemic Approach for Developing Cross-sectoral Strategies in the Face of Climate Change. TeMA J. Land Use Mobil. Environ. 2015, 8, 19–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baron, M. Do we need smart cities for resilience? J. Econ. Manag. 2012, 10, 32–46. [Google Scholar]
- Deal, B.; Pan, H.; Pallathucheril, V.; Fulton, G. Urban Resilience and Planning Support Systems: The Need for Sentience. J. Urban Technol. 2017, 24, 29–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kakderi, C.; Psaltoglou, A.; Fellnhofer, K. Digital platforms and online applications for user engagement and collaborative innovation. In Proceedings of the 20th Scientific Conference, Association of Greek Regional Scientists, Regions at a turning point: Post-Digital communities, New regionalism and Re-nationalisation-Sustainable development implications, Athens, Greece, 22–23 June 2018; pp. 112–117. [Google Scholar]
- Komninos, N.; Panori, A.; Kakderi, C. Smart cities beyond algorithmic logic: Digital platforms, user engagement and data science. In Smart Cities in the Post-Algorithmic Era; Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, MA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Komninos, N.; Panori, A. The creation of city smartness: Architectures of intelligence in smart cities and smart ecosystems. In Smart Cities in the Post-Algorithmic Era; Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, MA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Kakderi, C.; Tasopoulou, A. Regional economic resilience: The role of national and regional policies. Eur. Plan. Stud. 2017, 25, 1435–1453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Batty, M.; Murcio, R.; Iacopini, I.; Vanhoof, M.; Milton, R. London in Lockdown: Mobility in the Pandemic City. arXiv, 2021; arXiv:2011.07165. [Google Scholar]
- Kraemer, M.U.; Yang, C.H.; Gutierrez, B.; Wu, C.H.; Klein, B.; Pigott, D.M.; Scarpino, S.V. The effect of human mobility and control measures on the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Science 2020, 368, 493–497. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Global Footprint Network. Earth Overshoot Day. 2020. Available online: https://www.footprintnetwork.org/our-work/earth-overshoot-day/ (accessed on 5 April 2021).
- Lai, K.Y.; Webster, C.; Kumari, S.; Sarkar, C. The nature of cities and the Covid-19 pandemic. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2020, 46, 27–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kakderi, C.; Komninos, N.; Panori, A.; Oikonomaki, E. Next City: Learning from Cities During COVID-19 to Tackle Climate Change. Sustainability 2021, 16, 3158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- OECD. Tackling Coronavirus (COVID-19): Contributing to a Global Effort. Cities Policy Responses. 2020. Available online: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=126_126769-yen45847kf&title=Coronavirus-COVID-19-Cities-Policy-Responses (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- UN Habitat. Cities and Pandemics: Towards a More Just, Green and Healthy Future. United Nations Human Settlements Programme. 2021. Available online: https://unhabitat.org/sites/default/files/2021/03/cities_and_pandemics-towards_a_more_just_green_and_healthy_future_un-habitat_2021.pdf (accessed on 20 November 2020).
- Chamings, A. The 2020 San Francisco Exodus is Real, and Historic, Report Shows; SF Gate: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Bozzon, A.; Psyllidis, A. Social Distancing Dashboard, TU Delft 25 May. 2020. Available online: https://www.tudelft.nl/covid/social-distancing/social-distancing-dashboard (accessed on 3 March 2021).
- Pozoukidou, G.; Chatziyiannaki, Z. 15-Minute City: Decomposing the New Urban Planning Eutopia. Sustainability 2021, 13, 928. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Komninos, N. The New Logic of Environmental Sustainability under the Smart Everything Paradigm; ERSA: Thessaloniki, Greece, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Ye, L.; Mandpe, S.; Meyer, P.B. What is smart growth?—Really? J. Plan. Lit. 2005, 19, 301–315. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Venter, Z.S.; Barton, D.N.; Gundersen, V.; Figari, H.; Nowell, M. Urban nature in a time of crisis: Recreational use of green space increases during the COVID-19 outbreak in Oslo, Norway. Environ. Res. Lett. 2020, 15, 104075. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xie, J.; Luo, S.; Furuya, K.; Sun, D. Urban parks as green buffers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6751. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ugolini, F.; Massetti, L.; Calaza-Martínez, P.; Cariñanos, P.; Dobbs, C.; Ostoić, S.K.; Sanesi, G. Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the use and perceptions of urban green space: An international exploratory study. Urban For. Urban Green. 2020, 56, 1268. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Honey-Rosés, J.; Anguelovski, I.; Chireh, V.; Daher, K.; Konijnendijk, C.; van den Bosch, C.; Litt, J.S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. The impact of COVID-19 on public space: An early review of the emerging questions–design, perceptions and inequities. Cities Health 2020, 1–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Batty, M. The Morphology of the Post Pandemic City. UCL Working Paper Series, Paper 226. 2020. Available online: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/bartlett/casa/publications/2021/mar/casa-working-paper-226-morphology-post-pandemic-city-applications-london (accessed on 5 April 2021).
- Moovit Public Transport Index (2020). Available online: https://moovitapp.com/insights/en/Moovit_Insights_Public_Transit_Index-countries (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- Basu, R.; Ferreira, J. Sustainable mobility in auto-dominated Metro Boston: Challenges and opportunities post-COVID-19. Transp. Policy 2021, 103, 197–210. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vickerman, R. Will Covid-19 put the public back in public transport? A UK perspective. Transp. Policy 2021, 103, 95–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Bernhard, A. The Great Bicycle Boom of 2020, BBC. 2020. Available online: https://www.bbc.com/future/bespoke/made-on-earth/the-great-bicycle-boom-of-2020.html (accessed on 28 January 2021).
- Reid, C. Bike Sales Increased 63% During Lockdown, Reveals U.K.’s Bicycle Association. Forbes. 3 August 2020. Available online: https://www.forbes.com/sites/carltonreid/2020/08/03/bike-sales-increased-63-during-lockdown-reveals-uks-bicycle-association/#7ce2d3907e12 (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- Cosnard, D. L’usage du vélo en forte expansion dans les grandes villes. Le Monde. 4 September 2020. Available online: https://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2020/09/04/l-usage-du-velo-en-forte-expansion-dans-les-grandes-villes_6050943_823448.html (accessed on 5 September 2020).
- Vandi, K. Coronavirus: How Pandemic Sparked European Cycling Revolution. BBC News. 2020. Available online: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-54353914 (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- European Commission. The European Green Deal. 2019. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en (accessed on 30 August 2020).
- Mock, B. A Green Stimulus Plan for a Post-Coronavirus Economy; Bloomberg CityLab: New York, NY, USA, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Kanda, W.; Kivimaa, P. What opportunities could the COVID-19 outbreak offer for sustainability transitions research on electricity and mobility? Energy Res. Soc. Sci. 2020, 68, 101666. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hausler, S.; Heineke, K.; Hensley, R.; Möller, T. Our Insights, The Impact of COVID 19 in New Mobility Solutions. 2020. Available online: https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/automotive-and-as (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- Gkiotsalitis, K.; Cats, O. Public transport planning adaption under the COVID-19 pandemic crisis: Literature review of research needs and directions. Transp. Rev. 2021, 41, 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Budd, L.; Ison, S. Responsible Transport: A post-COVID agenda for transport policy and practice. Transp. Res. Interdiscip. Perspect. 2020, 6, 100151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gutiérrez, A.; Miravet, D.; Domènech, A. COVID-19 and urban public transport services: Emerging challenges and research agenda. Cities Health 2020, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- James, P.; Das, R.; Jalosinska, A.; Smith, L. Smart cities and a data-driven response to COVID-19. Dialogues Hum. Geography. 2020, 10, 255–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Litman, T. Evaluating Complete Streets; Victoria Transport Policy Institute: Victoria, BC, Canada, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Carlson, S.A.; Paul, P.; Kumar, G.; Watson, K.B.; Atherton, E.; Fulton, J.E. Prevalence of Complete Streets policies in US municipalities. J. Transp. Health 2017, 5, 142–150. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Komninos, N. Smart Cities and Connected Intelligence: Platforms, Ecosystems and Network Effects; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Komninos, N.; Kakderi, C. Smart Cities in the Post-Algorithmic Era: Integrating Technologies, Platforms and Governance; Edward Elgar Publishing: Northampton, MA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- OECD. The Territorial Impact of Covid-19: Managing the Crisis across Levels of Government. Available online: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/view/?ref=128_128287-5agkkojaaa&title=The-territorial-impact-of-covid-19-managing-the-crisis-across-levels-of-government (accessed on 30 November 2020).
- Vermicelli, S.; Cricelli, L.; Grimaldi, M. How can crowdsourcing help tackle the COVID-19 pandemic? An explorative overview of innovative collaborative practices. R&D Manag. 2021, 51, 183–194. [Google Scholar]
- Panori, A.; Kakderi, C.; Komninos, N.; Fellnhofer, K.; Reid, A.; Mora, L. Smart systems of innovation for smart places: Challenges in deploying digital platforms for co-creation and data-intelligence. Land Use Policy 2020, 104631. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bragazzi, N.L.; Dai, H.; Damiani, G.; Behzadifar, M.; Martini, M.; Wu, J. How big data and artificial intelligence can help better manage the COVID-19 pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3176. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Government Technology Platform. Pandemic Acts as Trial Run for Many Emerging Technologies. Available online: https://www.governing.com/security/Pandemic-Acts-as-Trial-Run-for-Many-Emerging-Technologies.html (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- Alam, F.; Almaghthawi, A.; Katib, I.; Albeshri, A.; Mehmood, R. iResponse: An AI and IoT-Enabled Framework for Autonomous COVID-19 Pandemic Management. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3797. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cugurullo, F. Urban artificial intelligence: From automation to autonomy in the smart city. Front. Sustain. Cities 2020, 2, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Costa, D.G.; Peixoto, J.P.J. COVID-19 pandemic: A review of smart cities initiatives to face new outbreaks. IET Smart Cities 2020, 2, 64–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abduljabbar, R.; Dia, H.; Liyanage, S.; Bagloee, S.A. Applications of artificial intelligence in transport: An overview. Sustainability 2019, 11, 189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Yigitcanlar, T.; Cugurullo, F. The sustainability of artificial intelligence: An urbanistic viewpoint from the lens of smart and sustainable cities. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8548. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mora, L.; Wu, X.; Panori, A. Mind the gap: Developments in autonomous driving research and the sustainability challenge. J. Clean. Prod. 2020, 275, 124087. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yigitcanlar, T.; Desouza, K.; Butler, L.; Roozkhosh, F. Contributions and risks of artificial intelligence (AI) in building smarter cities: Insights from a systematic review of the literature. Energies 2020, 13, 1473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kandt, J.; Batty, M. Smart cities, big data and urban policy: Towards urban analytics for the long run. Cities 2021, 109, 102992. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Komninos, N.; Kakderi, C.; Collado, A.; Papadaki, I.; Panori, A. Digital Transformation of City Ecosystems: Platforms Shaping Engagement and Externalities across Vertical Markets. J. Urban Technol. 2021, 28, 93–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, K.B. Typologies, Taxonomies, and the Benefits of Policy Classification. Policy Stud. J. 2002, 30, 379–395. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burau, V.; Blank, R.H. Comparing health policy: An assessment of typologies of health systems. J. Comp. Policy Anal. Res. Pr. 2006, 8, 63–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- NACTO. Global Designing Cities Initiative. Streets for Pandemic Response and Recovery. 2020. Available online: https://nacto.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Streets_for_Pandemic_Response_Recovery_Full_20-09-24.pdf (accessed on 15 September 2020).
- WBCSD. Methodology and indicator calculation method for Sustainable Urban Mobility, Sustainable Mobility Project 2.0 (SMP2.0) Indicators Work Stream, World Business Council for Sustainable Development. 2020. Available online: http://docs.wbcsd.org/2015/03/Mobility_indicators.pdf (accessed on 30 March 2020).
- European Commission. A Concept for Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans. 2013. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:82155e82-67ca-11e3-a7e4-01aa75ed71a1.0011.02/DOC_4&format=PDF (accessed on 30 March 2020).
- Komninos, N.; Kakderi, C.; Mora, L.; Panori, A.; Sefertzi, E. Towards High Impact Smart Cities: A Universal Architecture Based on Connected Intelligence Spaces. J. Knowl. Econ. 2021. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Howlett, M. Procedural Policy Tools and the Temporal Dimensions of Policy Design. Int. Rev. Public Policy 2019, 1, 27–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Laker, L. Milan Announces Ambitious Scheme to Reduce Car Use after Lockdown. The Guardian. 2020. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/apr/21/milan-seeks-to-prevent-post-crisis-return-of-traffic-pollution?fbclid=IwAR1G_svSB3fjoi_E03lPLts_UHkk3n78PoBW62Crv_-XtYsFY_27Nmw_Fhc (accessed on 8 October 2020).
- Ethnos. O Μεγάλος Περίπατος πάει περίπατο—«Ξηλώνεται» η Πανεπιστημίου. 2020. Available online: https://www.ethnos.gr/ellada/125198_o-megalos-peripatos-paei-peripato-xilonetai-i-panepistimioy (accessed on 8 October 2020).
|Sustainable Mobility Indicators|
|Emissions of greenhouse gases|
Net public finance
Congestion and delays
Commuting travel time
Mobility space usage
Quality of public area
Access to mobility services
Air polluting emissions
|Comfort and pleasure|
Accessibility for mobility-impaired groups
Affordability of public transport for poorest group
Resilience for disaster and ecologic/social disruptions
Opportunity for active mobility
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Kakderi, C.; Oikonomaki, E.; Papadaki, I. Smart and Resilient Urban Futures for Sustainability in the Post COVID-19 Era: A Review of Policy Responses on Urban Mobility. Sustainability 2021, 13, 6486. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116486
Kakderi C, Oikonomaki E, Papadaki I. Smart and Resilient Urban Futures for Sustainability in the Post COVID-19 Era: A Review of Policy Responses on Urban Mobility. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):6486. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116486Chicago/Turabian Style
Kakderi, Christina, Eleni Oikonomaki, and Ilektra Papadaki. 2021. "Smart and Resilient Urban Futures for Sustainability in the Post COVID-19 Era: A Review of Policy Responses on Urban Mobility" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 6486. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116486