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Article

Spatial–Temporal Heterogeneity and the Related Influencing Factors of Tourism Efficiency in China

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Institute of County Economic Development & Rural Revitalization Strategy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
School of Economics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
Lanzhou Information Center, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
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College of Geography and Environment Sciences, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christian M. Rogerson
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 5825; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115825
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 15 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Climate Change, Transport Geography and Smart Cities)
Tourism efficiency is an effective index of measuring the development quality of the tourism industry. In this study, the tourism efficiency of 30 provinces in China during the period from 2006 to 2018 was measured with the SBM model and Malmquist index. On the basis of ESDA and GWR models, we explored the spatial pattern of China’s tourism efficiency and the spatial heterogeneity of the influencing factors in depth. The results revealed that China’s tourism efficiency has been constantly enhanced with an increasingly balanced pattern. Meanwhile, the utilization degrees of various input factors have constantly been improving. Both technological efficiency and technological progress jointly promote rapid growth of total-factor productivity. Accompanied with constant enhancement of the spatial agglomeration effect, the local spatial pattern also showed obvious differentiation. In general, low-efficiency regions were mainly concentrated in northern China, while high-efficiency regions were concentrated in southern China. The distinct spatial–temporal differentiation characteristics of tourist economic efficiency can be attributed to different influencing strengths of various factors in various regions and different action tendencies. The level of economic development, traffic conditions, the professional level of tourism, and openness degree can significantly promote tourism efficiency. Tourism resource endowment and environmental cost impose slight effects and differ in action direction, thereby inhibiting the tourism efficiency of many regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: tourism efficiency; super-efficiency SBM model; geographically weighted regression (GWR); spatial heterogeneity; influencing factors; China tourism efficiency; super-efficiency SBM model; geographically weighted regression (GWR); spatial heterogeneity; influencing factors; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Z.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Sun, D.; Li, H.; Lu, C. Spatial–Temporal Heterogeneity and the Related Influencing Factors of Tourism Efficiency in China. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5825. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115825

AMA Style

Liu Z, Lu C, Mao J, Sun D, Li H, Lu C. Spatial–Temporal Heterogeneity and the Related Influencing Factors of Tourism Efficiency in China. Sustainability. 2021; 13(11):5825. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115825

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Zhiliang, Chengpeng Lu, Jinhuang Mao, Dongqi Sun, Hengji Li, and Chenyu Lu. 2021. "Spatial–Temporal Heterogeneity and the Related Influencing Factors of Tourism Efficiency in China" Sustainability 13, no. 11: 5825. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115825

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