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Open AccessArticle

Design Guidelines to Develop Circular Products: Action Research on Nordic Industry

1
RISE IVF, 43 122 Mölndal, Sweden
2
Environment and Sustainability Section, Afry, 401 51 Göteborg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3679; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093679
Received: 9 March 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
Product design and development are key to moving towards a circular economy; however, the majority of products and components that are currently recirculated have not been designed for circulation of any sort. Circular economy business models and closing the loop can be functional only if the products and services are designed for circularity. This paper presents a set of generic design guidelines for different circular strategies. The guidelines are then used to map companies’ circular product design initiatives in the early stages of product design and development. The guidelines have proved to support decision-making and enhance the circularity of products. The guidelines were developed, validated, and tested at four companies within the Nordic countries through an action research approach. Sourcing raw materials, recycling, and ensuring the robustness of products for the use phase are the most common strategies used by the studied companies. There is an ongoing transition towards other recirculation strategies, such as repair, remanufacture, and reuse. View Full-Text
Keywords: eco-design; product development; circular economy; circular product development: product design for the environment eco-design; product development; circular economy; circular product development: product design for the environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shahbazi, S.; Jönbrink, A.K. Design Guidelines to Develop Circular Products: Action Research on Nordic Industry. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3679. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093679

AMA Style

Shahbazi S, Jönbrink AK. Design Guidelines to Develop Circular Products: Action Research on Nordic Industry. Sustainability. 2020; 12(9):3679. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093679

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shahbazi, Sasha; Jönbrink, Anna K. 2020. "Design Guidelines to Develop Circular Products: Action Research on Nordic Industry" Sustainability 12, no. 9: 3679. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093679

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