An Approach to Health and Safety Assessment in Industrial Parks
- hazard identification and analysis approach,
- risk evaluation methodology,
- preventive and protective measures,
- chain of authority and responsibility, and
- monitoring and follow-up.
2.1. Definitions and Acronyms
2.2. Health and Safety Risk Management Process
- Activity planning: this is the “scope” of risk assessment (e.g., what, how, who, when).
- Hazard identification: all potential hazards should be identified and outlined (sources, situations or acts that may cause harm to workers).
- Consequence evaluation: the potential impacts and harmful consequences to workers should be then calculated in terms of likelihood and magnitude (qualitative judgement).
- Risk assessment: this determines the level of risk exposure from each identified hazard on the concerned target. Usually it is a combination of the likelihood and the severity of occurrence (e.g., injuries or ill health issues caused by the event itself).
- Risk control: risk level should be reduced as low as reasonably practicable to an agreed acceptable level. Suitable mitigation measures should be designed and their effectiveness in risk reduction should be further assessed. Risk assessment must be repeated in case controls fail to prevent incidents, effects are not mitigated as expected, or operational conditions change.
- Long term risk control: the development of a remedial plan to be implemented and monitored over time at the site or installation site is also expected.
3.1. Activity Planning
- qualification risk analysis and assessment of possible interferences in activities,
- qualification in the identification of prevention and protection measures against the risks—especially those related to interference among the realization of different activities,
- knowledge of the safety regulations and standards (national and international),
- ability of coordination and mediation between different needs and profiles, and
- skills of responsibility and leadership in also dealing with special situations.
- project scope and expectation;
- identified inputs: work activities, working areas, safety records, legal requirements and other business constrains;
- company safety, environmental and quality standards and regulations;
- legal provisions and country legislation; and
- organizational process or objectives to manage assets.
- methodology approach,
- definition of roles and responsibilities,
- budgeting allocation,
- timing and milestones,
- identification of risk categories,
- residual risk acceptance criteria,
- reporting format (risk register or risk assessment report),
- implementation tracking and efficiency estimation of prevention measures, and
- risk assessment updating.
3.2. Hazard Identification
- Job related hazards [13,16], mainly related to construction, operation, and maintenance job conduct, such as
- hazards induced by vehicles (use of or interference with);
- hazards induced by working equipment, tools and lifting devices;
- slip, trip, and fall hazards;
- hazards induced by falling and moving objects (could also be passive, not job related);
- electrical hazards (could also be passive, not job related); and
- hazards from defective equipment maintenance and calibration.
- Facility process induced hazards [13,15], mainly area hazards, which could be generated in the overall working environment (and also site vicinity), and not necessarily related to the job conduct, such as
- hazards from fire and explosion (pressure wave, heat, burning and projectiles);
- hazards from operation of equipment other than those directly involved in the job;
- chemical hazards, including general air quality;
- physical hazards (noise, dust, heat, radiation, vibration, electrical field, etc.);
- biological hazards (bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins);
- natural hazards induced by site external events, or external to the working place (earthquakes, flood, wind, high and low extreme temperature, wet environment, spill of hazardous materials, structural collapse, etc.); and
- hazards associated to ergonomic risk factors, working conditions (difficult access, poor lighting, heavy lifting, repetitive actions, etc.).
- hazards induced by willful psychological behaviors (willful acts, etc.); and
- omission errors (lack of protective devices, deliberate wrong maneuvers, etc.).
- hazards induced by work organization and work process flow (including supervision, leadership, staffing, interferences and scheduling);
- hazards induced by (wrong) work practices and procedures; and
- hazards associated with emergency situations and nonroutine tasks
- Hazard analysis of area sources [13,15] (typical for process related hazards), within each subarea if the working area is divided into several parts (hazards present in the working area–subarea independently of tasks carried out). A hazard analysis is typically made identifying all stationary sources generating chemical, physical, fire, collapse, etc.
- Job hazard analysis [13,16,17] (typical for job related and organizational hazards) for each task performed (hazards that depend only on activities, regardless of the area conditions). The job-related hazard analysis should be focused on the relationship between the worker, the task, the tools, and the work environment. Typically, this analysis can be used as a way to identify hazards before they occur.
- Human behavior and organizational [13,18] analysis (typical for human behavior and health hazards). Special techniques of data collection on human attitude and behavior should be applied, with reference to suitable models. Data collection is typically managed through checklists, and behaviors are assessed against reference models.
- Identify activities performed in the unit or perimeter and break them down into elementary tasks.
- Collect and review information about the hazards present or likely to be present in the workplace which are due to the job performed or external sources.
- Conduct workplace inspections (at all working areas in all working conditions and statuses, site vicinity, warehouses, storages, offices, electrical areas, etc.) to identify new or recurring hazards. Additional inspections can be conducted on a regular basis to update the hazard identification, since hazards could be introduced over time as workstations and processes change.
- Investigate records and trends from injuries, illnesses, incidents, near misses and nonconformities, to review their causes and determine the underlying hazards.
- a description of the locations which each manager is responsible for, including, if appropriate, a sketch map;
- a register of the employees regularly present at the locations (task and role);
- a register of people who may enter hazardous areas such as visitors and contractors;
- a list of the permanent or semipermanent items of machinery and equipment usually present at location;
- a list of power tools and other devices used at location;
- a list of the hazardous chemicals and substances stored, transported or used at location;
- a list of the main energy sources, such as electricity, LPG and radiation, used at location;
- a list of the tasks carried out at location; and
- an analysis of human factors (organizational and behavioral).
- significant events that occurred in the industrial park;
- evidence from medical surveillance;
- new solutions for mitigation and prevention made available by developments in innovation technology;
- changes in work organization (restructuring, changes in management policies, working methods, etc.);
- physical changes in the installation due to ageing, environmental and configuration changes, interferences with new installations, etc.;
- a need for maintenance of monitoring, alerting, alarms connected to hazardous scenarios; and
- changes in local regulations, international standards or industrial park policies.
3.3. Evaluation of Harmful Consequences to Workers
- personal safety: injuries, physical harms or impacts; and
- personal health: occupational disease, work related psychological diseases and wellness conditions.
- magnitude of consequence (Mc); and
- likelihood of event occurrence (Le)
- normal condition (planned activities under standard running conditions);
- abnormal condition (planned activities under transient and extraordinary running conditions (this category might eventually be included in the previous one if common control procedures and levels are present)); and
- emergency condition (unexpected occurrences causing one or more safety relevant event(s)).
3.4. Risk Evaluation
4.1. Assessment of Risk Control Measures
- acceptance: no action needs to lower the risk likelihood or impact;
- avoidance: exiting the activities that give a rise to risk;
- reduction: action(s) taken to reduce risk likelihood, impact or both, depending on the daily decisions that management is required to take; and
- sharing: reducing risk likelihood or impact by transferring or sharing a portion of it.
- Marginal = risk value ≤ 4:
- no specific action plan is formally required, as long as the hazard scenario and the existing controls remain unchanged.
- Moderate = risk value ≥ 6 and ≤ 8:
- no specific risk reduction plan is formally required, but the effectiveness of the existing controls should be periodically monitored, and ad hoc actions can be implemented in order to meet the “as low as reasonably practicable” approach.
- High = risk value ≥ 9 and ≤ 12:
- a specific risk reduction plan is formally required for the area of concern, with priority to the reduction of the dominant risk contributing to the aggregated value; and
- if not already present, the organizational unit should consider the opportunity to issue a specific operational procedure or technical instruction on risk control.
- Critical = Risk Value = 16:
- Apply stop work policy as immediate action. A specific risk reduction plan is formally required for the area of concern before activity restarts.
- eliminating or control all high and critical risk levels (hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death, injuries, serious physical harm, illnesses);
- selecting controls according to a hierarchy that emphasizes engineering solutions (including elimination or substitution, intrinsic safety design) first, followed by safe work practices, administrative or managerial controls, collective protective equipment and finally personal protective equipment (PPE); and
- whenever possible, selecting equipment, machinery, and materials that are inherently safe based on the application of “prevention through design” principles.
- develop safer ways, procedures and instructions to do the jobs or use less harmful products and materials. Apply changes in work processes;
- address risky human behaviors through communication, commitment, awareness, training, personal protection, surveillance, work organization, procedures;
- enforce changes in equipment and tools types, calibration, etc;
- provide equipment replacement or improved engineering controls: they can eliminate the hazard (e.g., machine guards, improved lighting, better ventilation, etc.);
- add administrative controls, or changes in how the working tasks are done; it can be used if engineering controls are not possible (e.g., rotating jobs, changing the steps, training); and identify changes in personal protective equipment (PPE).
4.2. Risk Reduction Plan
- list the risks needing controls in order of priority,
- define control measures and actions to reduce risks to acceptable shared levels,
- assign responsibility for installing or implementing the controls to a specific person or persons with the power or ability to implement the controls,
- establish a target completion date,
- plan how the HS unit will track progress toward completion, and
- plan how the HS unit will verify the effectiveness of the controls after they are installed or implemented.
4.3. Training and Communication
- knowledge and skills needed to do their work safely and avoid creating hazards that could place themselves or others at risk;
- awareness and understanding of workplace hazards and how to identify, report, and control them; and
- specialized training, when their work involves unique hazards.
- a way to ensure that safety risks are effectively managed;
- to ensure that the specific safety objectives of an industrial park are met by establishing a process for the implementation and management of controls;
- to define new safety management processes;
- use by a HS unit to determine the status of industrial park safety management activities; and
- use by internal and external auditors to determine the degree of compliance with the policies, directives and standards adopted by the industrial park.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Acronyms and Keywords||Description|
|Acceptable Risk||Risk reduced to a level that can be accepted by the organization with respect to the obligations of law and the content of this policy.|
|Aggregated Risk Value||Combination of risk values evaluated for all hazards, into an overall risk measure.|
|Asset||Any workplace, construction site or object, which the industrial park owns, manages, operates or installs, directly or through contractors and subcontractors.|
|Continuous Improvement||Any activity or process aimed at continuous enhancement of installation performance in relation to HS.|
|Critical event||An event related to a specific hazard occurring in an asset or as consequence of an activity with the potential to significantly affect the safety of workers and the public.|
|Employer||Industrial park manager that has the responsibility, defined by the local law and/or by the company organization, to ensure the health and safety of the people working for the company.|
|Hazard||Source or situation that may cause harm or adverse health effects to people, such as an injury, an occupational disease or a combination of these.|
|HS||Health and safety unit, or internal to the operating and organizational units. They are the industrial park workers within the HS unit, system and external or internal positions in which they aim to prevent—and protect people from—occupational hazards.|
|Impact Magnitude||Outcome of the critical event, measured as relevance by its qualitative and quantitative effects.|
|Indicator||Measurable representation of the condition, status or variation of a system (e.g., process, activity, phenomenon, sample).|
|Inherent Risk||Risk present in absence of existing control activities.|
|Likelihood||Probability of occurrence of the critical event in a specific exposure period.|
|Magnitude||Potential effect caused by exposure to work-related risk; for example, the noise agent of risk can cause a reduction in the hearing threshold, i.e., the onset of hearing loss (damage)|
|Organizational Unit (OU)||Minimal part of the industrial park with direct responsibility of its workers’ safety and that is able to develop a risk assessment.|
|PPE||Personal protective equipment.|
|Risk||Combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a critical (hazardous) event or exposure(s) and the severity of injury or ill health that can be caused by the event or exposure(s).|
|Risk Assessment||Overall process of estimating the level of risk and deciding whether the risk is acceptable or not.|
|Risk Control||Any action of guidance, operation or influence taken to directly or indirectly reduce a risk.(Passive measures (barriers) and active measures (safety systems, procedures, etc.) are considered part of control measures.)|
|Value||Level of Likelihood||Criteria|
|Inherent Risk and Relevance||Impact Magnitude (Mc)|
|Likelihood (Le)||1.Very Unlikely||1.Marginal||2.Marginal||3.Marginal||4.Marginal|
|Risk Level Induced by Identified Sources||Risk Category||Level of Hazard Source||Description|
|13–16||Critical||Source level > RVL||Unacceptable consequences–stop work.|
|9–12||High||RVL > Source level > RV2||Exposition to source should be limited in time, source effects should be monitored, and a risk reduction plan should be developed in the short term.|
|5–8||Moderate||RV2 > Source level > RV1||Exposure to source tolerated, provided source effects are monitored and limits assessed.|
|1–4||Marginal||RV1 > Source level||No significant detectable health effects.|
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García-Gómez, F.J.; González-Gaya, C.; Rosales-Prieto, V.F. An Approach to Health and Safety Assessment in Industrial Parks. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093646
García-Gómez FJ, González-Gaya C, Rosales-Prieto VF. An Approach to Health and Safety Assessment in Industrial Parks. Sustainability. 2020; 12(9):3646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093646Chicago/Turabian Style
García-Gómez, Fco. Javier, Cristina González-Gaya, and Víctor Fco. Rosales-Prieto. 2020. "An Approach to Health and Safety Assessment in Industrial Parks" Sustainability 12, no. 9: 3646. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12093646