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Economic Gain vs. Ecological Pain—Environmental Sustainability in Economies Based on Renewable Biological Resources

Campus Evenstad, Faculty of Applied Ecology, Agricultural Sciences and Biotechnology, Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, No-2480 Koppang, Norway
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Harry P. Andreassen sadly passed away 21 May 2019.
Sustainability 2020, 12(9), 3557;
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 21 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
There are two main international strategies concerning how to ensure a sustainable environment: one is to develop a globally bio-based economy, or bioeconomy, to meet the increased demand of goods and products to maintain our well-being and to reduce climate change. On the other hand, there is an aim to decrease the negative impacts on nature and natural habitats to conserve and maintain ecosystems and control the loss of biodiversity. There is a trade-off between these two strategies; as we increase the commitment to the bioeconomy by intensifying biomass production, we will simultaneously challenge biodiversity through the increased pressure on, and the utilization of, biological raw materials. Here, we first review and discuss the challenges and opportunities in terrestrial and marine ecosystems for the production of biomass for the bioeconomy. We focus on the trade-offs between economic sustainability on one hand, and environmental sustainability and resilience on the other hand. We conclude with a discussion of the various bioeconomy strategies. Finally, we present a conceptual model on how to sustainably develop the bioeconomies (by introducing the concept of optimizing the economic gain/ecological pain ratio) to be able to manage the biodiversity in a sustainable way. View Full-Text
Keywords: bioeconomy; ecosystem services; environmental sustainability; biodiversity bioeconomy; ecosystem services; environmental sustainability; biodiversity
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Pedersen, S.; Gangås, K.E.; Chetri, M.; Andreassen, H.P. Economic Gain vs. Ecological Pain—Environmental Sustainability in Economies Based on Renewable Biological Resources. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3557.

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