Next Article in Journal
Sustainable Development of Human Society in Terms of Natural Depleting Resources Preservation Using Natural Renewable Raw Materials in a Novel Ecological Material Production
Next Article in Special Issue
Bioresource Utilization of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) Biomass as Natural Antioxidants
Previous Article in Journal
Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee Safety: Evidence from Korea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Probiotics in Animal Husbandry: Applicability and Associated Risk Factors
Article

Sustainable Processes and Chemical Characterization of Natural Food Additives: Palmyra Palm (Borassus Flabellifer Linn.) Granulated Sugar

1
College of Biotechnology and Bioresources, Da-Yeh University, No. 168 University Rd, Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan
2
Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Ho-Chi-Minh City University of Food Industry, No.140, Le Trong Tan Street, Tay Thanh Ward, Tan Phu District, Ho-Chi-Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
Department of Food and Beverage Management, Chung-Jen Junior College of Nursing, Health Sciences and Management, No. 217, Hung-Mao-Pi, Chia-Yi City 60077, Taiwan
4
Department of Medicinal Botanical and Health Applications, Da-Yeh University, No.168, University Rd, Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(7), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072650
Received: 20 February 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 27 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Additives and Sustainability)
Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) is an important sugar-producing plant that is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries. Its jaggery and sweet sap are prevalent in Cambodia as a substitute for table sugar. They contain essential minerals, vitamins, and biological compounds. We investigated the changes in the nutritional composition, antioxidant properties, and biological activity of palm granulated sugar prepared by using three different drying–solidification processes under vacuum conditions: the drying temperature was controlled at 80 °C, 90 °C, and 100 °C, and the drying time was 60, 75, and 90 min, respectively. Palm granulated sugar contains 10 kinds of vitamins (mainly vitamin E 52.15–55.12 mg/100 g), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (2.18 to 41.92 mg/100 g), and 38 volatile compounds that belong to the alcohol, ketones, pyrazines, acids, and phenols groups, and an aldehyde group. Moreover, palm granulated sugar exhibits a high total phenolic content (2.77–8.94 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g), 2,2-diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (20.15%–37.88%), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) value (322.68–378.23 μmol Fe2+/mL). Furthermore, palm granulated sugar-treated NIH3T3 cells showed a higher cell viability of 18.10% to 23.68%. This study confirmed that palm granulated sugar prepared at 90 °C for 75 min can have a better product quality with increased vitamin and mineral contents, antioxidant properties, and biological activity, while also being low in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. View Full-Text
Keywords: palmyra palm; granulated sugar; antioxidant properties; biological activity palmyra palm; granulated sugar; antioxidant properties; biological activity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Huynh Thi Le, D.; Lu, W.-C.; Li, P.-H. Sustainable Processes and Chemical Characterization of Natural Food Additives: Palmyra Palm (Borassus Flabellifer Linn.) Granulated Sugar. Sustainability 2020, 12, 2650. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072650

AMA Style

Huynh Thi Le D, Lu W-C, Li P-H. Sustainable Processes and Chemical Characterization of Natural Food Additives: Palmyra Palm (Borassus Flabellifer Linn.) Granulated Sugar. Sustainability. 2020; 12(7):2650. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072650

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huynh Thi Le, Dung, Wen-Chien Lu, and Po-Hsien Li. 2020. "Sustainable Processes and Chemical Characterization of Natural Food Additives: Palmyra Palm (Borassus Flabellifer Linn.) Granulated Sugar" Sustainability 12, no. 7: 2650. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12072650

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop