Technological Ecosystems in Citizen Science: A Framework to Involve Children and Young People
2. Related Works
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Technological Ecosystem Metamodel
3.2. WYRED Ecosystem
- Phase 1. Preparation. It begins with a consultation phase involving outreach and participation and a process of social dialogue. In this initial step, children and young people are brought together and facilitated to discuss the issues and concerns of the digital society, using age-appropriate facilitation techniques and tools.
- Phase 2. Dialogue. The results obtained in the previous phase lead to the second phase of the research definition. Through the articulation of research questions, children and young people are again supported to consider key issues in greater depth.
- Phase 3. Research. The next stage in the process is focused on action. The research questions are articulated as research projects. These projects, developed within the framework for citizen science, can cover different methodologies and formats when presenting the results.
- Phase 4. Evaluation. In the last phase of the research cycle, the analysis of the projects is carried out. Children and young people seek to interpret their work, their answers. At each stage, children and young people have the opportunity to present their analysis and critique of the online environment in which they interact and develop projects.
- Access to registration in the Platform is by invitation and linked to the informed consent procedures.
- The personal data is stored in an off-line database to which only the administrator have access. It will be only used in cases where abusive or unacceptable behaviour in the Platform.
- Parental consent managed by each institution involved in the project is needed to finish the registration process of children under 14 years old.
4. The Case Study
- Do social networks promote the stereotypes?
- Do teaching learning processes an impact in the stereotypes?
- How young people deal with pressure about self-image?
- Does Internet influence in sports?
- Does social media support the gender gap?
- Do stereotypes have an impact in the current society?
- Do stereotypes only related to gender or there are stereotypes related to sexual orientation?
- Are there gender stereotypes during childhood?
- Gender stereotypes are part of our lives from the beginning, also when technology is not part of our lives.
- Internet could help to identify stereotypes although also it is a way to strengthen them.
- Teachers should aware about stereotypes and they can use the examples available on Internet to analyse them in the classroom.
- There are gender stereotypes associated to the uses of Internet.
6. Discussion and Conclusions
6.1. Contributions to Theory
6.2. Implications to Practice
6.3. Key Lessons Learnt
- It illustrates that within a group of children and young people, they find a wide range of research topics to explore, as well as creative means to presenting their research results.
- As identified in previous work focusing on co-creation processes , the proper development of international conversations requires the participation of facilitators - educators or scientists - who guide the group dynamics.
- The asynchronous communication tools provided by the WYRED ecosystem facilitate communication in a single language, English, by allowing the necessary time to prepare the interventions, as well as allowing the use of automatic translators as support in cases where the written level is low. The facilitator plays a key role in facilitating conversation and avoiding problems associated with written expression.
- The participation of children between 7 and 14 years old requires the support of their teachers and, to a lesser extent, of the educational centre, in order to manage the legal permission of the tutors to register in the WYRED ecosystem and to develop the citizen science projects at an international level.
- Research projects carried out by children and young people involve a learning process as well as providing ideas to researchers and decision-makers. Besides, the ecosystem allows giving visibility to the projects so that other young people can get ideas for future projects.
- The ecosystem provides the context and tools necessary to establish a methodology based on communication between people involved in research projects in order to achieve international projects, involving people with different points of view, from heterogeneous social and cultural contexts.
- Language is a barrier in the development of international citizen science projects, but the use of asynchronous communication based on the WYRED Platform allows children and young people use translate tools and other resources to collaborate with people from other countries.
6.4. Limitations of the Research
6.5. Future Research Directions
Conflicts of Interest
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García-Holgado, A.; García-Peñalvo, F.J.; Butler, P. Technological Ecosystems in Citizen Science: A Framework to Involve Children and Young People. Sustainability 2020, 12, 1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051863
García-Holgado A, García-Peñalvo FJ, Butler P. Technological Ecosystems in Citizen Science: A Framework to Involve Children and Young People. Sustainability. 2020; 12(5):1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051863Chicago/Turabian Style
García-Holgado, Alicia, Francisco José García-Peñalvo, and Paul Butler. 2020. "Technological Ecosystems in Citizen Science: A Framework to Involve Children and Young People" Sustainability 12, no. 5: 1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12051863