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Open AccessArticle

Residential Racial and Socioeconomic Segregation as Predictors of Housing Discrimination in Detroit Metropolitan Area

1
School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
2
Fair Housing Center of Metropolitan Detroit, Detroit, MI 48213, USA
3
School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Flint, MI 48502, USA
4
Institute on Multicultural Health, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
5
Eastside Community Network, Detroit, MI 48215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(24), 10429; https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410429
Received: 23 October 2020 / Revised: 30 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 December 2020 / Published: 13 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Inequality and Exclusion)
This study examined neighborhood racial and socioeconomic characteristics associated with housing discrimination (HD) in the Detroit Metropolitan Area, Michigan. Using novel neighborhood level data from the Fair Housing Center of Metropolitan Detroit in combination with the American Community Survey, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were derived to examine associations between HD cases and percentage of homeowners, non-Hispanic White (NHW) residents, and median income. Models were stratified to examine these associations for race-, disability- and rent-related HD outcomes. Between 2008–2017, 988 HD incidents were reported. Independently, neighborhood proportion NHW, income, and homeownership were inversely associated with all-types of HD. Jointly, the neighborhood predictors remained significant indicators. Similar patterns were observed in race-, disability- and rent-related HD when neighborhood predictors were examined independently. In the joint models, household income no longer predicted race-related HD, while proportion NHW no longer predicted disability- and rent-related HD. Results suggest HD may be more frequent in neighborhoods with greater proportions of NHB or Hispanic residents, those with lower incomes, and greater proportion of rental households. These findings have great social and health implications and warrant further exploration of how HD contributes to social and health inequities in lower income, predominantly NHB and Hispanic neighborhoods and those with more renters. View Full-Text
Keywords: housing; discrimination; inequities; fair housing; segregation housing; discrimination; inequities; fair housing; segregation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mehdipanah, R.; Bess, K.; Tomkowiak, S.; Richardson, A.; Stokes, C.; White Perkins, D.; Cleage, S.; Israel, B.A.; Schulz, A.J. Residential Racial and Socioeconomic Segregation as Predictors of Housing Discrimination in Detroit Metropolitan Area. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10429. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410429

AMA Style

Mehdipanah R, Bess K, Tomkowiak S, Richardson A, Stokes C, White Perkins D, Cleage S, Israel BA, Schulz AJ. Residential Racial and Socioeconomic Segregation as Predictors of Housing Discrimination in Detroit Metropolitan Area. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10429. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410429

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Bess, Kiana; Tomkowiak, Steve; Richardson, Audrey; Stokes, Carmen; White Perkins, Denise; Cleage, Suzanne; Israel, Barbara A.; Schulz, Amy J. 2020. "Residential Racial and Socioeconomic Segregation as Predictors of Housing Discrimination in Detroit Metropolitan Area" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10429. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410429

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