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Article

The Relationship between the Spatial Configuration and the Fourth Sustainable Dimension Creativity in University Campuses: The Case Study of Zernike Campus, Groningen, The Netherlands

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Department of Spatial Planning and Environment, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, 9747AD Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Cultural Geography, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, 9747AD Groningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9263; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219263
Received: 27 September 2020 / Revised: 18 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 7 November 2020
To date, little is known about the spatial aspects of the creativity of university campuses and their public spaces. This study recognises that creativity is the fourth sustainability, because the spatial configuration of campuses and city-university accessibilities are ‘creative solutions’ conceived for human needs. At the same time, creative ideas depend on interactions between individuals and the built environment. Therefore, based on the theoretical framework of the scholars who have explored the spatial aspects of creativity, this study empirically investigates Zernike Campus, Groningen, and its public spaces using a mixed-methods approach that involves (1) a space syntax analysis of the campus’s spatial configuration, (2) volunteered geographic information (VGI) of the users’ perceptions, and (3) non-participatory observations of the interactions between people and the built environment in public spaces with high and low ‘potential for creativity’. The results show that creativity cannot be explained simply by analysing spatial configurations, but that it also depends on the combination of the land-use mix, physical features, positive experiences, and perceptions of a sense of place which enable trust and interactions, and which facilitate creative encounters. Therefore, the mixed-methods approach applied here can help urban planners and designers to address public spaces more effectively, integrating conditions that support creativity. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; creativity; space syntax; volunteered geographic information (VGI); public participatory GIS (PPGIS); university campus; science park; public space; urban design; landscape design sustainability; creativity; space syntax; volunteered geographic information (VGI); public participatory GIS (PPGIS); university campus; science park; public space; urban design; landscape design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Soares, I.; Yamu, C.; Weitkamp, G. The Relationship between the Spatial Configuration and the Fourth Sustainable Dimension Creativity in University Campuses: The Case Study of Zernike Campus, Groningen, The Netherlands. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9263. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219263

AMA Style

Soares I, Yamu C, Weitkamp G. The Relationship between the Spatial Configuration and the Fourth Sustainable Dimension Creativity in University Campuses: The Case Study of Zernike Campus, Groningen, The Netherlands. Sustainability. 2020; 12(21):9263. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219263

Chicago/Turabian Style

Soares, Isabelle, Claudia Yamu, and Gerd Weitkamp. 2020. "The Relationship between the Spatial Configuration and the Fourth Sustainable Dimension Creativity in University Campuses: The Case Study of Zernike Campus, Groningen, The Netherlands" Sustainability 12, no. 21: 9263. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219263

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