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Article

Efficient Gear Ratio Selection of a Single-Speed Drivetrain for Improved Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption

School of Production Engineering & Management, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Greece
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Sustainability 2020, 12(21), 9254; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219254
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 10 October 2020 / Accepted: 29 October 2020 / Published: 7 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications, Integration and Trends of Renewable Energy Technologies)
The electric vehicle (EV) market has grown over the last few years and even though electric vehicles do not currently possess a high market segment, it is projected that they will do so by 2030. Currently, the electric vehicle industry is looking to resolve the issue of vehicle range, using higher battery capacities and fast charging. Energy consumption is a key issue which heavily effects charging frequency and infrastructure and, therefore, the widespread use of EVs. Although several factors that influence energy consumption of EVs have been identified, a key technology that can make electric vehicles more energy efficient is drivetrain design and development. Based on electric motors’ high torque capabilities, single-speed transmissions are preferred on many light and urban vehicles. In the context of this paper, a prototype electric vehicle is used as a test bed to evaluate energy consumption related to different gear ratio usage on single-speed transmission. For this purpose, real-time data are recorded from experimental road tests and a dynamic model of the vehicle is created and fine-tuned using dedicated software. Dynamic simulations are performed to compare and evaluate different gear ratio set-ups, providing valuable insights into their effect on energy consumption. The correlation of experimental and simulation data is used for the validation of the dynamic model and the evaluation of the results towards the selection of the optimal gear ratio. Based on the aforementioned data, we provide useful information from numerous experimental and simulation results that can be used to evaluate gear ratio effects on electric vehicles’ energy consumption and, at the same time, help to formulate evolving concepts of smart grid and EV integration. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy consumption; gear ratio; drivetrain; electric vehicle; single-speed energy consumption; gear ratio; drivetrain; electric vehicle; single-speed
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spanoudakis, P.; Moschopoulos, G.; Stefanoulis, T.; Sarantinoudis, N.; Papadokokolakis, E.; Ioannou, I.; Piperidis, S.; Doitsidis, L.; Tsourveloudis, N.C. Efficient Gear Ratio Selection of a Single-Speed Drivetrain for Improved Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption. Sustainability 2020, 12, 9254. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219254

AMA Style

Spanoudakis P, Moschopoulos G, Stefanoulis T, Sarantinoudis N, Papadokokolakis E, Ioannou I, Piperidis S, Doitsidis L, Tsourveloudis NC. Efficient Gear Ratio Selection of a Single-Speed Drivetrain for Improved Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption. Sustainability. 2020; 12(21):9254. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219254

Chicago/Turabian Style

Spanoudakis, Polychronis, Gerasimos Moschopoulos, Theodoros Stefanoulis, Nikolaos Sarantinoudis, Eftichios Papadokokolakis, Ioannis Ioannou, Savvas Piperidis, Lefteris Doitsidis, and Nikolaos C. Tsourveloudis 2020. "Efficient Gear Ratio Selection of a Single-Speed Drivetrain for Improved Electric Vehicle Energy Consumption" Sustainability 12, no. 21: 9254. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12219254

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