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Open AccessArticle

Stakeholder Mapping to Co-Create Nature-Based Solutions: Who Is on Board?

1
Chair for Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
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UMR CItés, TERritoires, Environnement et Sociétés, L’UMR 7324 CITERES, University of Tours, 37200 Tours, France
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Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Department Urban and Environmental Sociology, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
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Victorian Country Fire Authority, Bushfire Management, Melbourne 3149, Australia
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Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, 0855 Oslo, Norway
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IHE Delft, Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
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Institute for Environmental Sciences and Geography, University of Potsdam, 14468 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
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German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(20), 8625; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12208625
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 8 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 18 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Based Solutions—Concept, Evaluation, and Governance)
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are inspired and supported by nature but designed by humans. Historically, governmental stakeholders have aimed to control nature using a top-down approach; more recently, environmental governance has shifted to collaborative planning. Polycentric governance and co-creation procedures, which include a large spectrum of stakeholders, are assumed to be more effective in the management of public goods than traditional approaches. In this context, NBS projects should benefit from strong collaborative governance models, and the European Union is facilitating and encouraging such models. While some theoretical approaches exist, setting-up the NBS co-creation process (namely co-design and co-implementation) currently relies mostly on self-organized stakeholders rather than on strategic decisions. As such, systematic methods to identify relevant stakeholders seem to be crucial to enable higher planning efficiency, reduce bottlenecks and time needed for planning, designing, and implementing NBS. In this context, this contribution is based on the analysis of 16 NBS and 359 stakeholders. Real-life constellations are compared to theoretical typologies, and a systematic stakeholder mapping method to support co-creation is presented. Rather than making one-fit-all statements about the “right” stakeholders, the contribution provides insights for those “in charge” to strategically consider who might be involved at each stage of the NBS project. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecosystem-based; natural hazard mitigation; participative planning; co-design; polycentric governance; living labs; societal resilience; sustainable development goals ecosystem-based; natural hazard mitigation; participative planning; co-design; polycentric governance; living labs; societal resilience; sustainable development goals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zingraff-Hamed, A.; Hüesker, F.; Lupp, G.; Begg, C.; Huang, J.; Oen, A.; Vojinovic, Z.; Kuhlicke, C.; Pauleit, S. Stakeholder Mapping to Co-Create Nature-Based Solutions: Who Is on Board? Sustainability 2020, 12, 8625.

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