The mixed crop–livestock system is a primary source of livelihood in developing countries. Erratic climate changes are severely affecting the livelihoods of people who depend upon mixed crop–livestock production. By employing the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LVI (LVIIPCC
), and the livelihood effect index (LEI), this study evaluated livelihood vulnerability in southern Punjab, Pakistan. The study provides a range of indicators for national and local policy makers to improve resilience in the face of livelihood vulnerability. By incorporating more major components and subcomponents, this study identifies more specific challenges of livelihood vulnerability for future policy directions. It is interesting to find that credit and cash used for crop inputs are critical financial constraints for farmers. From the estimated indicators, this study also provides some specific policy recommendations for the four study districts of Punjab Province. These results are helpful in identifying and highlighting vulnerability determinants and indicators. Initiating and promoting better adaptive capacity and starting resilience projects for households are urgent actions required by donors and governments to reduce the livelihood vulnerability of mixed crop–livestock households in arid and semiarid areas.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited