Electricity Theft Detection Using Supervised Learning Techniques on Smart Meter Data
1.1. Background and Motivation
1.2. Literature Review
Positioning of Our Work in the Literature
- Conventional ETD includes the manual methods, i.e., humanly checking the meter readings and examining the direct hooking of power transmission lines. However, these methods require the additional cost for hiring the inspection teams.
- The game theory based solutions have a low detection rate and high False Positive Rate (FPR) .
- The state based solution is expensive because it requires an additional cost for hardware implementation .
- The major problem in ETD using machine learning techniques is handling the unbalanced data. In traditional models, this problem is left untreated. Some authors (as mentioned in Table 2) use the RUS and SMOTE methods, which cause the loss of information and overfitting problem, respectively.
- In most cases, the available data contain erroneous values, which reduce the classification accuracy .
- The traditional machine learning techniques like Logistic regression (LR) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have poor classification performance for massive data .
- The proposed approach provides the solution for the problem present in the power sector, such as to wastage of electrical power due to electricity theft.
- This model can efficiently be applied by the utility companies using the real electricity consumption data to identify the electricity thieves and reduce the energy wastage.
- The proposed approach can be used against the all types of consumers who steal the electricity.
- A comprehensive data pre-processing is performed using interpolation, three sigma rule, and normalization methods to deal with missing values and outliers in the dataset. The data pre-processing step gives the refined input, which improves the performance of the classifier.
- A class balancing technique, Adasyn, is proposed to address the problem of imbalance data. The benefit of using Adasyn is two-fold. Firstly, it improves the learning performance of classifier to be more focused on theft cases that are harder to learn. Secondly, it prevents the model from being biased.
- We have introduced a new technique VGG-16 to solve the problem of overfitting to improve the classification performance. This technique is never being used before in ETD domain, and it has improved the accuracy of the classification model. The VGG-16 efficiently extracts useful information from data to truly represent electricity theft cases.
- XGBoost is applied to predict final classification, which improves the performance by combining multiple weak learners to make a strong learner.
- Along with XGBoost, an optimization technique, the Firefly Algorithm (FA) is utilized for efficient parameter optimization of the classifier.
- We conduct extensive simulations on real electricity consumption data set and for comparative analysis, precision, recall, F1-score, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC), Receiving Operating Characteristics Area Under Curve (ROC-AUC), and Precision Recall Area Under Curve (PR-AUC) are used as performance metrics.
1.4. Organization of Paper
2. Proposed System Model
2.1. Overview of Proposed Methodology
2.1.1. Information of Collected Data
2.1.2. Data Pre-Processing
2.1.3. Data Balancing
|Algorithm 1: Adasyn Algorithm|
|Input: Initial dataset X and desired balanced level |
Output: Synthetic dataset
Initialize as minority class samples
Initialize as majority class samples
Synthesized total samples as
for each do
find the K nearest neighbors of
for each do
select the synthetic samples
2.1.4. Feature Extraction Using VGG-16
2.1.5. FA-XGBoost Based Classification
- Fireflies are uni-sexual in nature, so one firefly will be attracted to another regardless of whether the Firefly is male or female.
- The attractiveness is proportional to light intensity of each firefly; thus, for any two flashing fireflies, the less bright firefly will be attracted by the brightest firefly. Attractiveness is calculated using Equation (11), which is mentioned in  as:In the above equation, shows the attractiveness as a function of distance r, while represents attractiveness at zero distance. is the value of rate of light absorption in the air.
- As distance between fireflies increases, the attractiveness decreases. The distance between two fireflies i and j can be calculated using Euclidean distance as:In the above equation, rand represents the random number, t is the number of iterations, while controls the size of random walk.
|Algorithm 2: FA-XGBoost|
|1: Set the objective function by y = (1,2,3 ... n)|
2: Initialize the population of Fireflies by (i = 1,2,3 ... n)
3: Define as the rate of light absorption in the air
4: Define I as the light intensity of a firefly
5: Maximum number of iteration is m and t is current iteration
6: while (t < m)
7: for i = 1:
8: for j = 1:
9: if > then
10: Move Firefly i towards j
11: end if;
12: Attractiveness varies with distance r as given in Equation (8)
13: Adjust the light intensity I to find new solutions
14: Choose the best solution by random fly
15: end for j
16: end for i
17: Rank the Fireflies on the basis of minimum cost function
18: Choose the current best solution
19: end while
20: Return the best values of performance metrics
3. Experiments and Results
3.1. Loss Function
3.2. Model Evaluation Metrics
- True positive (TP), the dishonest consumers accurately predicted as dishonest.
- True Negative (TN), the honest consumers accurately predicted as honest.
- False Positive (FP), the honest consumers predicted as thieves.
- False Negative (FN), the dishonest consumers predicted as honest consumers.
3.3. Benchmark Models and Their Configuration
3.3.1. SVM Model
3.3.2. LR Model
3.3.3. RUSBoost Model
3.3.4. CNN Model
3.4. Proposed Model Results
3.5. Convergence Analysis
3.6. Comparison with Benchmark Models
4. Conclusions and Future Work
Conflicts of Interest
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|Hardware based ||Its focus is on designing specific hardware devices in order to detect electricity theft||High cost of hardware installation|
|Game theory ||There is a game between the electricity thieves and the utility. The outcome of a game can be derived from the difference between the electricity consumption behavior of electricity thieves and benign users||This method needs to define a utility function for all the players in a game, which is quite challenging.|
|Machine learning [18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25]||It uses the smart meter data to effectively detect anomalous consumption behavior of dishonest consumers||Performance is poor on highly imbalanced data|
|Dataset||Supervised Techniques||Data Balancing||Contributions||Limitations|
|SGCC ||LSTM, CNN||SMOTE||The CNN is utilized for feature extraction, while LSTM uses the refined features to classify the data into honest consumers and electricity thieves.||The overfitting problem is not considered, which is caused by the addition of duplicate information through SMOTE|
|Endesa ||MLP and LSTM||Not handled||Detect the NTL by combining the auxiliary data through MLP and electricity consumption data through LSTM||The imbalanced data are not balanced before classification|
|Honduras ||MODWPT, RUSBoost||National grid of Brazil||The MODWPT gives the refined input and RUSBoost method balances the labels in the data before classification||The random under sampling technique reduces the data size and results in underfitting the model|
|Brazilian utility ||BBHA||Not handled||Use of binary black hole optimization technique to identify the NTL||No reliable evaluation is performed to validate the performance of the system|
|Endesa ||SVM, XGBoost||RUS||The XGBoost is utilized that operates as an ensemble method and boosts the classification performance||The data pre-processing is not considered to refine the input data|
|Irish data ||MIC, FSFD||Not handled||The refined data are achieved by MIC method, while FSFDP is used for classification.||This model has a high cost of hardware installation|
|NAB ||LSTM-GMM||Not handled||The authors enhanced the internal structure of LSTM to solve the gradient vanishing problem||The model is complex and its execution time is high|
|EISA ||CNN, RF||SMOTE||The generalized performance is achieved by using the decision trees along with CNN||The SMOTE generate synthetic data, which causes overfitting issues|
|Limitation Number||Limitation Identified||Solution Number||Proposed Solution|
|L.1||Missing values and outliers||S.1||Pre-processing|
|L.5||Reliable Evaluation||S.5||Precision, Recall, F1-Score,|
|MCC, ROC-AUC, PR-AUC|
|Duration of collected data||2014–2016|
|Data type||Time series|
|Resolution||High resolution real time smart meter data|
|Number of fraudulent consumers||3800|
|Number of honest consumers||38,530|
|Batch size||130||It is training samples in each iteration|
|Leaning rate||0.001||It is a tuning parameter|
|Dropout||0.01||To avoid overfitting problem in neural networks.|
|Optimizer||Adam||It is adaptive learning rate.|
|Epochs||10||It is the number of iterations for training the algorithm|
|Hyper-Parameters||Range of Values||Selected Value|
|1, 3, 5||3|
|Hyper-Parameters||Range of Values||Selected Value|
|R||0.001, 0.01, 0.1||0.001|
|C||l1 norm, l2 norm||l2 norm|
|Hyper-Parameters||Range of Values||Selected Value|
|Learning rate||0.2, 0.5, 1||1|
|Estimator||150, 200, 300||200|
|Hyper-Parameters||Range of Values||Selected Value|
|Epochs||10, 15, 30||10|
|Batch size||50, 80, 130||50|
|Dropout||0.01, 0.1, 0.2||0.2|
|Performance Metrics||Imbalaced Data||SMOTE||Adasyn|
|Confusion Matrix||Predicted No||Predicted Yes|
|Actual No||TN = 9306||FP = 1296|
|Actual Yes||FN = 948||TP= 8996|
|Limitation Number||Limitation Identified||Solution Number||Validation Results|
|L.1||Missing values and outliers||S.1||No direct validation|
|L.2||Imbalanced data||S.2||Adasyn algorithm effectively|
|handles imbalance data as|
|shown in Figure 8|
|L.3||Overfitting||S.3||Figure 10 shows a|
|generalized performance of our|
|L.4||Poor classification||S.4||Firefly based XGBoost classifier|
|achieved excellent results in|
|terms of all performance metrics|
|as mentioned in Figure 9|
|L.5||No reliable Evaluation||S.5||Figure 11 shows the performance|
|of our proposed model in terms|
|of several performance metrics|
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Khan, Z.A.; Adil, M.; Javaid, N.; Saqib, M.N.; Shafiq, M.; Choi, J.-G. Electricity Theft Detection Using Supervised Learning Techniques on Smart Meter Data. Sustainability 2020, 12, 8023. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198023
Khan ZA, Adil M, Javaid N, Saqib MN, Shafiq M, Choi J-G. Electricity Theft Detection Using Supervised Learning Techniques on Smart Meter Data. Sustainability. 2020; 12(19):8023. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198023Chicago/Turabian Style
Khan, Zahoor Ali, Muhammad Adil, Nadeem Javaid, Malik Najmus Saqib, Muhammad Shafiq, and Jin-Ghoo Choi. 2020. "Electricity Theft Detection Using Supervised Learning Techniques on Smart Meter Data" Sustainability 12, no. 19: 8023. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12198023