Fishing Livelihoods in the Mackenzie River Basin: Stories of the Délįne Got’ine
1. Introduction and Literature Review
1.1. Great Bear Lake and the Sahtú Got’ine
1.2. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Fisheries Management
3. The Story of Délįne Got’ine on Fishing Livelihoods
Long time ago, about 1946–1947, around that time, all the people depended on fish. Sometimes there’s caribou and sometimes there’s moose. And the way that people survived here was they shared whatever they [got]. And in regards to fishing, you fish all season and, in the winter—if you set a net, sometimes you can leave the net for two nights. And after two nights, you check it, you catch lots of fish and most of them are still alive.Quote from Alphonze Takazo—26 June 2017.
3.1. Why Is Fishing Important?
It’s extremely important because it’s our primary diet. It’s important to my family and community because its… we live on GBL and that’s what we eat a lot. The cost of food is expensive so… it’s free, good food… When hunting was scarce we had fish… Everything out there is free and it’s the absolute best for me… and it’s just there for me but I have to work my ass off for it, but it’s still free. And not just free, but the absolute best to put into my body… But in the city, I don’t have to work for anything. Everything is just there… and it’s not necessarily the best for me.Quote from Mandy Bayha—14 June 2017.
Food-wise… fish was the main source of food, because back then the caribou didn’t come… So, we depended on fish a lot…[it’s] my life.Quote from Morris Neyelle—9 June 2017.
Fish [are] very important as [a] food source. Without fish, you won’t have that—I forget what they call it—that oil that gives your life. And if you don’t have that oil you will deteriorate. So, it’s very important to have fish.Quote from Joe Dillon—15 June 2017.
For elders, they can’t really depend on meat… other meat. Fish is always… has to be the number one food source… She says that fishing is our number one livelihood. Because if you go, like, for hunting—for caribou or moose… you have to go long ways. But for fish, it’s just right here. You don’t have to go too far, so that’s why its number one now.Quote from Camilla Tutcho (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—19 June 2017.
That’s just like saying ‘don’t do your tradition. Don’t do your culture.’ Because I’ve been taught that… I’ve been taught fishing for a very long time. It provides food… feeds a lot of people… feeds the town people… and if you just got what you need, I’m pretty sure you give fish to other people.Quote from Nihtla Bayha—22 June 2017.
Oh my god, I never even think of that! What would it mean to [me] if you couldn’t go fishing anymore? May as well not even live here. Go live in the city. How sad is that?Quote form Verna Mae Firth—24 June 2017.
Sell my boat. I never think of that! Never even crossed my mind.Quote form Bruce Kenny—24 June 2017.
What would it mean to me? It would be devastation. Because fish is very important as the food source.Quote from Joe Dillon—15 June 2017.
And making sure that we’re always clean. That we leave less of a footprint as possible…. And how we should be recycling a lot more, more mindful of the things that we are wasting…. I think for the most part a lot of people are aware and… making an effort to keep things as clean as possible. And I think Deline as a whole, are really mindful of that also because we have so much respect for the lake, like… that’s our freezer… that’s our food… that’s our food source, our life source…. Everything that we have to be healthy comes from our lake, so I think we’ve always been mindful of that relationship. And there’s even a saying that we say sahtu keway—‘Great Bear Lake is the boss.’ So, everything we do is surrounding GBL. So, we’re always mindful of how the lake is doing or how we’re interacting with the lake.Quote from Mandy Bayha—14 June 2017.
I usually catch fish…. I sometimes say like a little prayer saying thank you to the Creator. That’s the main thing the Elders always say is to pray for it, be thankful for what you get.Quote from Mitchell Naedzo—23 June 2017.
Well, what my dad tells me is that he would not eat [fish] over 25 pounds. He would never eat over 25 pounds… because … actually he just told me this yesterday. He said … its older than me and it’s a fish elder.Quote from Nihtla Bayha—22 June 2017.
3.2. What Are the Changes Seen in the Local Lakes and Rivers?
We wait like… for the river to break up, so… then we caught three [tubs full] … Anyways, just like for example with one net… I check it two nights… I check it four times and 160 [fish] altogether”.Quote from Anonymous—16 June 2017.
3.2.1. Water Temperature
It keeps getting worse. And they did the water temperature—students came here, I don’t know what year, seven or eight years’ ago, and they said the water went up… I think they said four degrees or something.Quote from Morris Neyelle—9 June 2017.
I think it makes a big impact—the temperature of the water. Like you can feel it. I notice like when you put your hands in the water, you can feel it; it’s just warm. Usually you can’t even put your hands in there for half a minute… your hands get numb. In the summer time I notice, it’s just warm. It’s warm and then some days it’s so warm you can just… you know jump in the lake and just swim.Quote from Bruce Kenny—24 June 2017.
When you’re cutting it up you can tell immediately… like when the flesh is… like the meat will fall apart against the blade… that’s the reason we have to check [the net] more often because if you don’t, then a lot of your fish [are] not going to be super fresh… because for some reason the temperature warming up you have to check [the net] more often than not. But you’ll find if you don’t check your net often then a lot of the fish will be like that. Just because they’re like dead longer. And they don’t keep in the temperature for some reason.Quote from Mandy Bayha—14 June 2017.
Like I’ve fished all my life—in the summer, especially in summer, having my net out there. And in 60s, going to 70s… like my dad went out there and we check it. And each day, every second day we’d check—like we’d check today, tomorrow, the next day… and we check it again, and it would be still fresh, the flesh would be hard, good for cleaning or making dried fish. But now, in 40 years’ time, now I have to check it twice a day. But if I check it once a day, and I check it tomorrow, it will be mushy, like it’s… it’s soft.Quote from Morris Neyelle—9 June 2017.
And in regards to fishing, you fish all season and… in the winter, if you set a net, sometimes you can leave the net for two nights. And after two nights, you check it… you catch lots of fish and most of them are still alive. And he believes that is due to cold water. In those days, he says in the summer time, you could leave the net for two nights because the water’s cold. But recently, the water is warming, he says… So, you have to check the net every day.Quote from Alphonse Takazo (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—26 June 2017.
A fresh fish… when you cut it open, you don’t feel the soft or mushy kinda…. like its hard and slippery. When its mushy, it’s like old—not when you catch them by hooks, but when they are caught by net… they get spoiled fast though. Now they recommend you check your net twice a day… once in the morning, once in the evening.Quote from Joe Dillon—15 June 2017.
3.2.2. Water Quantity
She says, the water level use to be really high on Bear River. And one of the areas around Bear River, there’s a huge rock… boulder… that’s right in the middle, and those days you couldn’t see that big boulder… But since the 70s, when they boated over there, they could see the rock was beginning to show. And…, now you can see it.Quote form Camilla Tutcho as translated by Michael Neyelle—19 June 2017.
I guess the water is low. The water level this time of the year… this year is a little different. But our water levels…. I don’t think we have the same level or the volumes of water that we had in Bear Lake. I think slowly… this year especially, you can see…. Last year we probably had a foot, two [feet] at least. Normally the water would be up two feet. Oh yeah, all those rocks would be under… well you see where the sand is right there, high water would be above there. But I think over the years the volume of water is not there in Bear Lake. You notice that because of the volume of water on the river as well… its shallow. The way you used to go is not as deep anymore… the normal travel routes have to change because the water level is not there.Quote from Walter Beazha—13 June 2017.
Higher water… it’s picking up the shores around here too. Like that beach down there used to be way bigger. Yeah and over here, those rocks… you were able to sit on them, and now they’re covered in water. I guess ice caps are melting, … I’m not sure.Quote from Yata Yukon—28 June 2017.
Well I always put [my net] in the same spot, I catch a lot of fish there, so I just leave them…. Nothing’s changed. The depth didn’t change, the water didn’t change.Quote from Anonymous—16 June 2017.
3.3. What Changes Have You Seen in Fish Populations in Recent Years?
Before we used to catch lots [of Ciscos] at the mouth of river… now hardly any. How many times… we set a net there, [we would catch] three, four hundred…. Now it’s only a few.Quote from Chris Yukon—12 June 2017.
Less Ciscos for sure… there used to be lots.Quote from Chris Yukon—12 June 2017.
A long time ago she says she noticed too… that… way back in dog team days… when they used to set nets for herring in the same area around… they use to catch over thousands. And now it’s no more than 30, maybe…Quote form Camilla Tutcho (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—19 June 2017.
My dad took us out a lot on the land. So, I’d say yes… netting and fishing…. Fishing on the cabin. We catch a lot of grayling… You notice there’s less grayling down the river.Quote from Yata Yukon—28 June 2017.
[George] noticed that the herring population has just about totally disappeared. He says just recently… there’s lower numbers of herring… now there’s less big [trout].Quote from Michael Neyelle—20 June 2017.
You sit there and be mindful of the bones… “Oh, see you can find the axe… oh see if you can find the knife… how many tools can you find?” so, as a child you are trying to make sure you get all the meat off the bones… but being mindful of the bones and making sure not to eat them.’
3.4. What Changes Are People Noticing in the Winter?
Like when I was young I used to play and the snow drifts were way bigger than I was. And we used to play on those all the time… like it was the best time of my life… we used to snowmobile… on the snow drifts—like we were kind of crazy. But now… I mean like last year, it’s not like that anymore…. I think last year we didn’t really get too much snow. I was here in, like, December, and I could still see the willows… like some of the willows sticking out where usually its completely covered.Quote from Mandy Bayha—14 June 2017.
3.4.1. Winter Temperature
He says a long time ago it was really cold—it was very, very cold compared to today… he’s talking about 40, 30 degrees. Today it’s more than 20 or something… So, it’s sort of warmer winters. In the past, he says they’re always out on the land… and even on the land, it gets really cold… even the trees would explode… tear right apart. And the dogs would cry.Quote from (Alphonse Takazo (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—26 June 2017.
But the main part of the lake used to be cold all the time… we used to wear parkas but now we don’t do that anymore… we don’t have -40 weather anymore. You can check with the weather people but I don’t think we did. Imagine that. Last year our average temperature was higher than Winnipeg… in the average in December.Quote from Walter Beazha—13 June 2017.
3.4.2. Ice and the Winter Road
And here, the ice is not as thick as it used to be. [It used to be] six feet plus. And he says sometimes it rains in the winter. That never used to happen. The one time it happens in like maybe April or May.Quote from Alphonse Takazo (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—26 June 2017.
Well, when we were kids too, the ice used to be really thick. Now you’re lucky if you hit five feet…. And the lake… it takes longer to freeze. Like 5, 10 years ago I would cross in the middle of November, but now sometimes you won’t even cross in December… the lake.Quote from Chris Yukon—12 June 2017.
Because it’s getting warmer… But one of the things I find now is when it starts freezing, it will take a long time to freeze, so it creates this slush all over. And that’s what freezes…It creates all these bubbles…So when spring time comes, it just goes fast.Quote from Morris Neyelle—9 June 2017.
3.5. What Changes Are Being Observed in Fish Health?
Deer Pass Bay… one time we were there in the fall time… there was hardly [any eggs in there]—usually they spawn there in the fall time, but not that much…. We checked a few, but some of them just [are] thin…not ready to lay eggs. So just maybe [this year I got about thirty] fish … Maybe five or seven … all it has eggs like this.Quote from Anonymous—16 June 2017.
My dad just told me this… cysts. If there’s no cysts in the fish then it’s really healthy.Quote from Anonymous—16 June 2017.
In the last few years, I’ve noticed a lot of cysts in the Ciscos…. And I’ve noticed in the last maybe 5 years… cysts in trout. I’ve never really seen them in trout before… maybe one fish… or two fish or something that I’ve seen with the cysts. But before that… I’ve never really seen them before. But the Ciscos… there’s definitely [cysts], its normal sometimes that you would expect out of a bunch of fish that you are cutting up that at least a good percentage of them would have one or two cysts or something.Quote form Mandy Bayha—14 June 2017.
Well I did once… We squeezed it out and cut it off… We didn’t throw it back. The cysts that you can see are inside the fish, you can’t see them outside of the fish. That’s what I’m saying.Quote form Nihtla Beazha—22 June 2017.
He says sometimes when you cut fish open, you look at the meat. The meat sometimes you’ll see some white stuff on it. If you see that, you’re not supposed to eat it…the whole fish.Quote from Alsphonse Takazo (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—26 June 2017.
But she says just recently George Dolphus… he set a net for herring and he caught lots of herring. And gave some to Cam to make dry fish… and when she works on making dry fish… she has to throw away at least 10 or more, of these little herrings.Quote from Camilla Tutcho (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—19 June 2017.
Try and spell that…batayhalah (parasite)… George says that some of the fish they have it… it’s like a puss. Cysts… he’s looking for fish without those… those cysts. They’re not … a really health problem. You can cut it out. You can cut it out and it’s still good.Quote from George Kenny (as translated by Michael Neyelle)—15 June 2017.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
- McIlgorm, A.; Hanna, S.; Knapp, G.; Le Floc’H, P.; Millerd, F.; Pan, M. How will climate change alter fishery governance? Insights from seven international case studies. Mar. Policy 2010, 34, 170–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Brander, K.M. Global fish production and climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007, 104, 19709–19714. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Berkes, F.; Jolly, D. Adapting to climate change: Social-ecological resilience in a Canadian western Arctic community. Conserv. Ecol. 2002, 5, 18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Stoller, M. Where the rivers meet: Pipelines, participatory resource management, and Aboriginal-state relations in the Northwest Territories. BC Stud. 2016, 190, 141. [Google Scholar]
- Riedlinger, D.; Berkes, F. Contributions of traditional knowledge to understanding climate change in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Record 2001, 37, 315–328. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hori, Y. The Use of Traditional Environmental Knowledge to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Subsistence Fishing in the James Bay Region, Ontario, Canada. Master’s Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Pearce, T.; Ford, J.; Willox, A.C.; Smit, B. Inuit traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), subsistence hunting and adaptation to climate change in the Canadian Arctic. Arctic 2015, 68, 233–245. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Andrews, T.D.; Buggey, S. Canadian Aboriginal Cultural Landscapes in Praxis. In Managing Cultural Landscapes; Taylor, K., Lennon, J.L., Eds.; Routledge: Abingdon-on-Thames, UK, 2012; pp. 253–271. [Google Scholar]
- Great Bear Lake Working Group. “The Water Heart”: A Management Plan for Great Bear Lake and its Watershed; Directed by the Great Bear Lake Working Group and Facilitated and Drafted by Tom Nesbitt; Great Bear Lake Working Group: Deline, NT, Canada, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Rushforth, E.S. Kinship and Social Organization among the Great Bear Lake Indians: A Cultural Decision-Making Model; University of Arizona: Tucson, AZ, USA, 1977. [Google Scholar]
- Helm, J. The People of Denendeh: Ethnohistory of the Indians of Canada’s Northwest Territories; McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP: Montreal, QC, Canada, 2000; Volume 24. [Google Scholar]
- Stewart, D.B. A Review of the Status and Harvests of Fish Stocks in the Sahtu Dene and Metis Settlement Area, Including Great Bear Lake; Fisheries and Oceans Canada: Winnipeg, MB, Canada, 1996. [Google Scholar]
- Rushforth, S. The legitimation of beliefs in a hunter-gatherer society: Bearlake Athapaskan knowledge and authority. Am. Ethnol. 1992, 19, 483–500. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dana, L.P.; Anderson, R.B.; Meis-Mason, A. A study of the impact of oil and gas development on the Dene First Nations of the Sahtu (Great Bear Lake) Region of the Canadian Northwest Territories (NWT). J. Enterp. Commun. People Places Glob. Econ. 2009, 3, 94–117. [Google Scholar]
- Deline Uranium Team. If Only We Had Known: The History of Port Radium as Told by the Sahtuot’ine; Deline Uranium Team: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Berkes, F.; Colding, J.; Folke, C. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecol. Appl. 2000, 10, 1251–1262. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eythorsson, E. Sami fjord fishermen and the state: Traditional knowledge and resource management in northern Norway. In Traditional Ecological Knowledge: Concepts and Cases; Inglis, J., Ed.; International Development Research Centre: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1993; pp. 132–142. [Google Scholar]
- Ellis, S.C. Meaningful consideration? A review of traditional knowledge in environmental decision making. Arctic 2005, 58, 66–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Menzies, C.R. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Natural Resource Management; University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Borrows, J. Wampum at Niagara: The Royal Proclamation, Canadian legal history, and self-government. In Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equality and Respect for Difference; Asch, M., Ed.; UBC Press: Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1997; pp. 155–172. [Google Scholar]
- Berkes, F. Sacred Ecology; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2012; p. 368. [Google Scholar]
- Nuttall, M.; Berkes, F.; Forbes, B.; Kofinas, G.; Vlassova, T.; Wenzel, G. Hunting, herding, fishing and gathering: Indigenous peoples and renewable resource use in the Arctic. In Arctic Climate Impact Assessment; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2005; pp. 649–690. [Google Scholar]
- Berkes, F. Native subsistence fisheries: A synthesis of harvest studies in Canada. Arctic 1990, 43, 35–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Spangenberg, J. Research methods in cultural anthropology/Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. Organ. Stud. Walter Gruyter Gmbh Co KG 1990, 11, 464–469. [Google Scholar]
- Pörtner, H.O.; Peck, M.A. Climate change effects on fishes and fisheries: Towards a cause-and-effect understanding. J. Fish Biol. 2010, 77, 1745–1779. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Perry, A.L.; Low, P.J.; Ellis, J.R.; Reynolds, J.D. Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science 2005, 308, 1912–1915. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Munday, P.L.; Dixson, D.L.; McCormick, M.I.; Meekan, M.; Ferrari, M.C.; Chivers, D.P. Replenishment of fish populations is threatened by ocean acidification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2010, 107, 12930–12934. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wu, R.S.; Zhou, B.S.; Randall, D.J.; Woo, N.Y.; Lam, P.K. Aquatic hypoxia is an endocrine disruptor and impairs fish reproduction. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003, 37, 1137–1141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Carpenter, S.R.; Fisher, S.G.; Grimm, N.B.; Kitchell, J.F. Global change and freshwater ecosystems. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1992, 23, 119–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Johnson, L. Physical and chemical characteristics of Great Bear Lake, Northwest territories. J. Fish. Board Can. 1975, 32, 1971–1987. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rouse, W.R.; Blanken, P.D.; Bussières, N.; Walker, A.E.; Oswald, C.J.; Schertzer, W.M.; Spence, C. An investigation of the thermal and energy balance regimes of Great Slave and Great Bear Lakes. J. Hydrometeorol. 2008, 9, 1318–1333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schindler, D.W. The cumulative effects of climate warming and other human stresses on Canadian freshwaters in the new millennium. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2001, 58, 18–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fisheries in a Changing Climate. McGinn, N.A., Ed.; American Fisheries Society: Bethesda, MD, USA, 2002; p. 319.
- Chu, C.; Mandrak, N.E.; Minns, C.K. Potential impacts of climate change on the distributions of several common and rare freshwater fishes in Canada. Divers. Distrib. 2005, 11, 299–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tonn, W.M. Climate change and fish communities: A conceptual framework. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 1990, 119, 337–352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Miller, R.B. Notes on the arctic grayling, Thymallus signifer Richardson, from Great Bear Lake. Copeia 1946, 4, 227–236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Johnson, L. Distribution of fish species in Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, with reference to zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and environmental conditions. J. Fish. Board Can. 1975, 32, 1989–2004. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xenopoulos, M.A.; Lodge, D.M.; Alcamo, J.; Märker, M.; Schulze, K.; Van Vuuren, D.P. Scenarios of freshwater fish extinctions from climate change and water withdrawal. Glob. Change Biol. 2005, 11, 1557–1564. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Auld, J.; Kershaw, R. The Sahtu Atlas; Sahtu GIS Project: Norman Wells, NT, Canada, 2005; p. 68. [Google Scholar]
- Eerola, K.; Rontu, L.; Kourzeneva, E.; Schcherbak, E. A study on effects of lake temperature and ice cover in HIRLAM. Boreal Environ. Res. 2010, 15, 130–142. [Google Scholar]
- Quenneville, G. 1 Year Later, No Answers on Why Truck Broke through Ice on Deline Winter Road. Available online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/1-year-later-no-answers-ice-deline-road-broke-1.4013340 (accessed on 7 March 2017).
- GNWT-DOT (Government of the Northwest Territories, Department of Transport). Highway Conditions. 2017. Available online: http://www.dot.gov.nt.ca/Highways/Winter-Roads (accessed on 20 August 2018).
- Miller, R.B.; Kennedy, W.A. Observations on the lake trout of Great Bear Lake. J. Fish. Board Can. 1948, 7, 176–189. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lawler, G.H.; Scott, W.B. Notes on the geographical distribution and the hosts of the cestode genus Triaenophorus in North America. J. Fish. Board Can. 1954, 11, 884–893. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Meyer, M.C. The Larger Animal Parasites of the Fresh-Water Fishes of Maine; Fishery Research and Management Division Bulletin; Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Game: Augusta, ME, USA, 1954; Volume 1, p. 92. [Google Scholar]
- Freeman, M. Tradition and Change: Problems and persistence in the Inuit Diet. In Coping with Uncertainty in Food Supply; De Garine, I., Harrisson, G., Eds.; Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK, 1988; pp. 150–169. [Google Scholar]
- Ford, J.D.; Beaumier, M. Feeding the family during times of stress: Experience and determinants of food insecurity in an Inuit community. Geogr. J. 2011, 177, 44–61. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chandler, M.J.; Lalonde, C.E. Cultural continuity as a protective factor against suicide in First Nations youth. Horizons 2008, 10, 68–72. [Google Scholar]
- Wexler, L. The importance of identity, history, and culture in the wellbeing of indigenous youth. J. Hist. Child. Youth 2009, 2, 267–276. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parlee, B.; Furgal, C. Well-being and environmental change in the arctic: A synthesis of selected research from Canada’s International Polar Year program. Clim. Chang. 2012, 115, 13–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Snowshoe, A.; Crooks, C.V.; Tremblay, P.F.; Hinson, R.E. Cultural connectedness and its relation to mental wellness for First Nations youth. J. Prim. Prev. 2017, 38, 67–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Adger, W.N.; Barnett, J.; Brown, K.; Marshall, N.; O’brien, K. Cultural dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation. Nat. Clim. Chang. 2013, 3, 112–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Badjeck, M.C.; Allison, E.H.; Halls, A.S.; Dulvy, N.K. Impacts of climate variability and change on fishery-based livelihoods. Mar. Pol. 2010, 34, 375–383. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Un.org. Climate Change. 2018. Available online: http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/climate-change/ (accessed on 21 August 2018).
- Poesch, M.S.; Chavarie, L.; Chu, C.; Pandit, S.N.; Tonn, W. Climate change impacts on freshwater fishes: A Canadian perspective. Fisheries 2016, 41, 385–391. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Walker, J. Status of the Arctic Grayling (Thymallus arcticus) in Alberta; Alberta Sustainable Resource Development: Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2005; p. 52. [Google Scholar]
- Rasmussen, J.B.; Taylor, E.B. Status of the Athabasca rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Alberta; Government of Alberta: Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Mathew, S. Small-scale fisheries perspectives on an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management. In Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem; Sinclair, M., Valdimarsson, G., Eds.; CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK, 2003; pp. 47–63. [Google Scholar]
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Martin, C.; Parlee, B.; Neyelle, M. Fishing Livelihoods in the Mackenzie River Basin: Stories of the Délįne Got’ine. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7888. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197888
Martin C, Parlee B, Neyelle M. Fishing Livelihoods in the Mackenzie River Basin: Stories of the Délįne Got’ine. Sustainability. 2020; 12(19):7888. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197888Chicago/Turabian Style
Martin, Chelsea, Brenda Parlee, and Morris Neyelle. 2020. "Fishing Livelihoods in the Mackenzie River Basin: Stories of the Délįne Got’ine" Sustainability 12, no. 19: 7888. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197888