An Investigation of Pro-Environmental Behaviour and Sustainable Development in Malaysia
1.2. Need for the Study
- No studies, to the best of our knowledge, have so far explored these relationships.
- No studies have provided empirical evidence from Malaysia on the theoretical framework presented here. The current study fills the gap in the literature on sustainability in Malaysia.
2. Literature Review
2.1. Pro-Environmental Behaviour
2.2. Environmental Commitment
2.3. Environmental Consciousness
2.4. Green Lifestyle
2.5. Green Self-Efficacy
2.6. Theoretical Foundation
2.7. Hypotheses Development
2.7.1. Relationship between Environmental Commitment and Pro-Environmental Behaviour
2.7.2. Relationship between Environmental Consciousness and Pro-Environmental Behaviour
2.7.3. Relationship between Green Lifestyle and Pro-Environmental Behaviour
2.7.4. Relationship between Green Self-Efficacy and Pro-Environmental Behaviour
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Sample and Procedure
3.3. Data Analysis
4.1. Demographic Profiles of Respondents
4.2. Measurement Model Assessment
4.3. Structural Model Assessment
5.1. Main Findings
5.2. Theoretical Implications
5.3. Practical Implications
5.4. Limitations and Future Research Directions
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Pro-Environmental Behaviour
Appendix A.1. Air-Conditioning
- I check whether the temperature is set correctly in the classroom. The ideal setting is 24 °C or more.
- I make sure that air-conditioning is off after the class.
- I make sure that the temperature is increased outside learning hours.
- I make sure that the temperature is increased in unused room.
- I make sure that air-conditioning is off in unused room.
Appendix A.2. Printing
- I try to get as much as possible to print on both pages one A4 sheet.
- I try to get as much as possible to print two pages on one A4 sheet.
- I copy double-sided on one A4 sheet.
- I try to get as much as possible on one sheet by using narrow margins on one A4 sheet.
Appendix A.3. Drinking
- I use a mug for drinking water.
- I wash the mug in a sustainable way by using cold water, no use of washing-up liquids.
- I take a new plastic/carton cup each time I have a drink.
- I use stainless steel straw when drinking.
- I try to reduce the use of straw when drinking.
Appendix A.4. Sustainable Shopping
- I choose bio food when if it is offered in a cafeteria in the campus.
- I bring my own shopping/plastic bag when I shop in the campus.
- When I purchase goods or services, I pay attention to sustainability.
Appendix A.5. Computer Use
- I switch off my computer/notebook when I leave the class for a considerable period.
- I switch off my computer/notebook when I go home/hostel.
Appendix A.6. Light Use
- I switch on the lights when I come to the class and switch them off after my class.
- I switch off the lights when I leave my class for a considerable period of time if there is no one else in the class.
- I switch off the lights when there is no one else in the class.
Appendix A.7. Recycling
- Plastic bottles
- Chemical office waste
Appendix A.8. Environmental Commitment
- I really care about the environmental concern of my organization.
- I would feel guilty about not supporting the environmental efforts of my organization.
- The environmental concern of my organization means a lot to me.
- I feel a sense of duty to support the environmental efforts of my organization.
- I really feel as if my organization’s environmental problems are my own.
- I feel personally attached to the environmental concern of my organization.
- I feel an obligation to support the environmental efforts of my organization.
- I strongly value the environmental efforts of my organization.
Appendix A.9. Green Lifestyle
- Recycle bottles, cans, or glass
- Recycle newspaper
- Compost garden waste
- Take your own bags to the supermarket
- Cut down on car use
- Contribute money to environmental causes
- Volunteer for an environmental group
Appendix A.10. Environmental Consciousness
- The organization has clear and concrete environmental policies.
- The managers in the organization are in charge of environmental policies.
- I understand its environmental policies and environmental regulations in this organization.
- I noticed that this organization implements regular environmental audits.
Appendix A.11. Green Self-Efficacy
- We feel we can succeed in accomplishing environmental ideas.
- We can achieve most environmental goals.
- We feel competent to deal effectively with environmental tasks.
- We can perform effectively on environmental missions.
- We can overcome environmental problems.
- We could find out creative solutions to environmental problems
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|Green Self Efficacy||0.909||0.626||3.462||0.611|
|1. Environmental Commitment|
|2. Environmental Consciousness||0.832|
|3. Green Lifestyle||0.210||0.195|
|4. Green Self Efficacy||0.703||0.616||0.231|
|5. Pro-Environmental Behaviour||0.667||0.280||0.247||0.557|
|Hypotheses||Relationship||Std Beta||Std Error||t-Value||p-Value||BCI LL||BCI UL||f2|
|H1||Env Commitment→Pro-Env Behaviour||0.635||0.136||4.675||p < 0.001||0.421||0.857||0.400|
|H2||Env Consciousness → Pro-Env Behaviour||0.285||0.139||2.047||0.020||0.096||0.554||0.101|
|H3||Green Lifestyle → Pro-Env Behaviour||0.155||0.076||2.039||0.036||0.057||0.307||0.047|
|H4||Green Self Efficacy → Pro-Env Behaviour||0.245||0.103||2.377||0.009||0.080||0.415||0.072|
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Yusliza, M.Y.; Amirudin, A.; Rahadi, R.A.; Nik Sarah Athirah, N.A.; Ramayah, T.; Muhammad, Z.; Dal Mas, F.; Massaro, M.; Saputra, J.; Mokhlis, S. An Investigation of Pro-Environmental Behaviour and Sustainable Development in Malaysia. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7083. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177083
Yusliza MY, Amirudin A, Rahadi RA, Nik Sarah Athirah NA, Ramayah T, Muhammad Z, Dal Mas F, Massaro M, Saputra J, Mokhlis S. An Investigation of Pro-Environmental Behaviour and Sustainable Development in Malaysia. Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):7083. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177083Chicago/Turabian Style
Yusliza, Mohd Yusoff, Amirudin Amirudin, Raden Aswin Rahadi, Nik Afzan Nik Sarah Athirah, Thurasamy Ramayah, Zikri Muhammad, Francesca Dal Mas, Maurizio Massaro, Jumadil Saputra, and Safiek Mokhlis. 2020. "An Investigation of Pro-Environmental Behaviour and Sustainable Development in Malaysia" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 7083. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177083