Comparing Human Activity Density and Green Space Supply Using the Baidu Heat Map in Zhengzhou, China
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.2. Data Sources and Preprocessing
2.2.1. Classification of Urban Green Space
2.2.2. Human Activity Density Estimation (Baidu Heat Map Layout)
2.3.1. Analytical Framework
2.3.2. HAD Data Conversion and Assignment
2.3.3. Analysis of Human Activity Density Change in Urban Green Space
3. Results of the Analysis
3.1. Spatiotemporal Features of Human Activity Density
3.1.1. Comparison of Human Activity Density at Different Times
3.1.2. Comparison of the Area Used per Hour of Urban Green Space
3.2. Relationship between Human Activity and Different Types of Green Space
- For all types of urban green space, the usage rate was square/community park > belt-shaped park > comprehensive park > theme park > green buffer > other green land.
- Community parks and belt-shaped parks were the two types of green space that were used most efficiently (63.6% and 43.6% occupied ratio), and they tended to be in short supply.
- The square/community parks were generally located close to residential areas, and showed a high occupied ratio from 7:00 to 12:30 and 18:30 to 11:10. The trajectories of different HADs were similar on weekdays and weekends (Figure 9).
- Belt-shaped parks had the highest percentage of utilization relative to their availability in the city (43.6%). Due to the flexibility of their shape, they largely compensate for the current shortage of green space and provide an alternative site for the morning and evening rush hours.
- Comprehensive parks had a high efficiency and utility rate (36.4%). The frequency of use and the area used on weekends were higher than on weekdays (Figure 10).
- There are many theme parks in the central city of Zhengzhou because of the implementation of green-space system planning and decision-making in recent years. However, most of them are far away from residential areas, so their percentage of utilization was only 19.3%.
- The percentage of utilization of green buffers and other green lands was low, mainly because they are in the periphery of the city and play a role in ecological protection. However, these areas were visited more on weekends than weekdays.
5. Conclusions and Policy Recommendations
Conflicts of Interest
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|Green Space Category||Area (km2)|
|Other green space||273.44|
|Category||Area (km2)||Percent of Utilization||Proportion of Total Green Space|
|Other green land||273.44||10.5%||86.48%|
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Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, X.; Song, P.; Tian, G.; Mayer, A.L. Comparing Human Activity Density and Green Space Supply Using the Baidu Heat Map in Zhengzhou, China. Sustainability 2020, 12, 7075. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177075
Zhang S, Zhang W, Wang Y, Zhao X, Song P, Tian G, Mayer AL. Comparing Human Activity Density and Green Space Supply Using the Baidu Heat Map in Zhengzhou, China. Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):7075. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177075Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Shumei, Wenshi Zhang, Ying Wang, Xiaoyu Zhao, Peihao Song, Guohang Tian, and Audrey L. Mayer. 2020. "Comparing Human Activity Density and Green Space Supply Using the Baidu Heat Map in Zhengzhou, China" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 7075. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177075