Next Article in Journal
Regionally Divergent Patterns in Factors Affecting Municipal Waste Production: The Polish Perspective
Next Article in Special Issue
Organic Farming and Climate Change: The Need for Innovation
Previous Article in Journal
Burnout Syndrome, Engagement and Goal Orientation in Teachers from Different Educational Stages
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Cultivating Rice and Wheat with and without Organic Fertilizer Application on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Quality in Khost, Afghanistan

Investigation of Input and Output Energy for Wheat Production: A Comprehensive Study for Tehsil Mailsi (Pakistan)

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
Department of Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht 4199613776, Iran
Institute for Water Resources and Water Supply, Hamburg University of Technology, Am Schwarzenberg-Campus 3, 20173 Hamburg, Germany
Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally for this work.
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6884;
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 21 August 2020 / Accepted: 22 August 2020 / Published: 24 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Economic Performance of Farming and Food Systems)
The global increasing food demand can be met by efficient energy utilization in mechanized agricultural productions. In this study, input–output energy flow along with CO2 emissions for different wheat production cases (C-I to C-V) were investigated to identify the one that is most energy-efficient and environment-friendly case. Data and information about input and output sources were collected from farmers through questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Input and output sources were converted into energy units by energy equivalents while CO2 emissions were calculated by emission equivalents. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was conducted to compare technical efficiencies of the developed cases for optimization of inputs in inefficient cases. Results revealed that case C-Ⅴ (higher inputs, larger fields, the tendency of higher fertilizer application and tillage operations) has the highest energy inputs and outputs than the rest of the cases. Moreover, it possesses the lowest energy use efficiency and energy productivity. The highest CO2 emissions (1548 kg-CO2/ha) referred to C-Ⅴ while lowest emissions per ton of grain yield were determined in C-Ⅳ (higher electricity water pumping, moderate energy input). The grain yield increases directly with input energy in most of the cases, but it does not guarantee the highest values for energy indices. C-Ⅲ (moderate irrigations, educated farmers, various fertilizer applications) was found as an optimum case because of higher energy indices like energy use efficiency of 4.4 and energy productivity of 153.94 kg/GJ. Optimum input and better management practices may enhance energy proficiency and limit the traditionally uncontrolled CO2 emissions from wheat production. Therefore, the agricultural practices performed in C-Ⅲ are recommended for efficient cultivation of wheat in the studied area. View Full-Text
Keywords: input–output energy; wheat production; CO2 emissions; Pakistan input–output energy; wheat production; CO2 emissions; Pakistan
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ashraf, M.N.; Mahmood, M.H.; Sultan, M.; Banaeian, N.; Usman, M.; Ibrahim, S.M.; Butt, M.U.B.U.; Waseem, M.; Ali, I.; Shakoor, A.; Khan, Z.M. Investigation of Input and Output Energy for Wheat Production: A Comprehensive Study for Tehsil Mailsi (Pakistan). Sustainability 2020, 12, 6884.

AMA Style

Ashraf MN, Mahmood MH, Sultan M, Banaeian N, Usman M, Ibrahim SM, Butt MUBU, Waseem M, Ali I, Shakoor A, Khan ZM. Investigation of Input and Output Energy for Wheat Production: A Comprehensive Study for Tehsil Mailsi (Pakistan). Sustainability. 2020; 12(17):6884.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ashraf, Muhammad N., Muhammad H. Mahmood, Muhammad Sultan, Narges Banaeian, Muhammad Usman, Sobhy M. Ibrahim, Muhammad U.B.U. Butt, Muhammad Waseem, Imran Ali, Aamir Shakoor, and Zahid M. Khan. 2020. "Investigation of Input and Output Energy for Wheat Production: A Comprehensive Study for Tehsil Mailsi (Pakistan)" Sustainability 12, no. 17: 6884.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop