Next Article in Journal
Carbon Emission Reduction Strategy for Energy Users in China
Next Article in Special Issue
An Economic Comparison between Alternative Rice Farming Systems in Tanzania Using a Monte Carlo Simulation Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Are Existing Battery Electric Vehicles Adoption Studies Able to Inform Policy? A Review for Policymakers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Conservation Agriculture and Integrated Pest Management Practices Improve Yield and Income while Reducing Labor, Pests, Diseases and Chemical Pesticide Use in Smallholder Vegetable Farms in Nepal
Open AccessArticle

Multi-Objective Optimization of Smallholder Apple Production: Lessons from the Bohai Bay Region

Department of Plant Nutrition, National Academy of Agriculture Green Development, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(16), 6496;
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 3 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 August 2020 / Published: 12 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suitable Agronomic Techniques for Sustainable Agriculture)
Transforming apple production to one with high yield and economic benefit but low environmental impact by improving P-use efficiency is an essential objective in China. However, the potential for multi-objective improvement for smallholders and the corresponding implications for horticultural practices are not fully appreciated. Survey data collected from 99 apple producers in Quzhou County of Bohai Bay Region were analyzed by the Pareto-based multi-objective optimization method to determine the potential of multi-objective improvement in apple production. With current practices, apple yield was 45 t ha−1, and the economic benefit was nearly 83,000 CNY ha−1 but with as much as 344 kg P ha−1 input mainly from chemical fertilizer and manure. P gray water footprint was up to 27,200 m3 ha−1 due to low P-use efficiency. However, Pareto-optimized production, yield, and economic benefit could be improved by 38% and 111%, respectively. With a concurrent improvement in P-use efficiency, P gray water footprint was reduced by 29%. Multi-objective optimization was achieved with integrated horticultural practices. The study indicated that multi-objective optimization could be achieved at a smallholder scale with realistic changes in integrated horticultural practices. These findings serve to improve the understanding of multi-objective optimization for smallholders, identify possible constraints, and contribute to the development of strategies for sustainable apple production. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple production; multi-objective optimization; phosphorus; smallholders apple production; multi-objective optimization; phosphorus; smallholders
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, S.; Zhang, H.; Cong, W.; Liang, Z.; Ren, Q.; Wang, C.; Zhang, F.; Jiao, X. Multi-Objective Optimization of Smallholder Apple Production: Lessons from the Bohai Bay Region. Sustainability 2020, 12, 6496.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop