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Article

Protective and Risk Factors for Adolescent Substance Use in Spain: Self-Esteem and Other Indicators of Personal Well-Being and Ill-Being

1
Department of Methodology of Behavioral Sciences, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 5962; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155962
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 11 July 2020 / Accepted: 21 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
Although self-esteem has traditionally been considered as an important correlate of psychosocial adjustment, some empirical studies have found a positive relationship between some domains of self-esteem and drug use among adolescents. The present study analyzes self-esteem and other adjustment personal indicators as protective or risk factors for substance use. Participants were 644 Spanish adolescents aged 12–17 years. Substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs), multidimensional self-esteem (academic, social, emotional, family, and physical), and other indicators of adolescents’ well-being and ill-being (psychological problems, behavior problems, and parenting) were measured. We observed, on the one hand, that substance use had a significant negative relationship with academic, family, and physical self-esteem. On the other hand, we also observed a significant positive relationship between drug use and social self-esteem. However, this significant relationship disappeared after statistically controlling for sex and age, using both partial correlation analyses and covariance analysis. Interestingly, beyond the importance of each factor related to drugs, prevention science should first of all be able to identify whether the main psychological variables (e.g., social or physical self-esteem) are risk or protective factors for drug use. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-esteem; drug use; well-being and ill-being indicators; adolescence; full health; third variables; contradictory results self-esteem; drug use; well-being and ill-being indicators; adolescence; full health; third variables; contradictory results
MDPI and ACS Style

Fuentes, M.C.; Garcia, O.F.; Garcia, F. Protective and Risk Factors for Adolescent Substance Use in Spain: Self-Esteem and Other Indicators of Personal Well-Being and Ill-Being. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5962. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155962

AMA Style

Fuentes MC, Garcia OF, Garcia F. Protective and Risk Factors for Adolescent Substance Use in Spain: Self-Esteem and Other Indicators of Personal Well-Being and Ill-Being. Sustainability. 2020; 12(15):5962. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155962

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fuentes, María C., Oscar F. Garcia, and Fernando Garcia. 2020. "Protective and Risk Factors for Adolescent Substance Use in Spain: Self-Esteem and Other Indicators of Personal Well-Being and Ill-Being" Sustainability 12, no. 15: 5962. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155962

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