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Open AccessReview

Why Community-Based Tourism and Rural Tourism in Developing and Developed Nations are Treated Differently? A Review

1
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05006, Korea
2
Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
3
Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
4
Department of Civil and Environmental, Universidad de La Costa, Calle 58#55-66, Barranquilla 080002, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 5938; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155938
Received: 30 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 20 July 2020 / Published: 23 July 2020
Rural community tourism initiatives in developed nations share most positive and negative characteristics with community-based tourism (CBT) initiatives in developing nations. They also share many barriers and conditions for tourism development. What makes them different is the context in which they operate. This paper identifies the main conditions that explain these differences through a review of findings from 103 location-specific case studies and other available literature that provides empirical evidence. The paper also explores the usage of the concepts of CBT and rural tourism. The findings are discussed under seven categories: Definitions, socioeconomic and cultural factors, policy and governance, land ownership, community cohesiveness, assimilation of external stakeholders, and type of visitors. It is argued that it is the developing-/developed-nation context, and not objectively established criteria, which largely dictates authors’ narratives with corresponding takes on tourism development and subsequent recommendations. The paper engages in a discussion about case-study research, its weaknesses and tendencies, providing some recommendations on how to increase the contribution of case studies to knowledge, and calls for more research on externally assisted non-Indigenous community-tourism initiatives in developed nations. View Full-Text
Keywords: CBT; remote area; peripherality; tourism development; rural development CBT; remote area; peripherality; tourism development; rural development
MDPI and ACS Style

Zielinski, S.; Jeong, Y.; Kim, S.-i.; B. Milanés, C. Why Community-Based Tourism and Rural Tourism in Developing and Developed Nations are Treated Differently? A Review. Sustainability 2020, 12, 5938. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155938

AMA Style

Zielinski S, Jeong Y, Kim S-i, B. Milanés C. Why Community-Based Tourism and Rural Tourism in Developing and Developed Nations are Treated Differently? A Review. Sustainability. 2020; 12(15):5938. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155938

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zielinski, Seweryn; Jeong, Yoonjeong; Kim, Seong-il; B. Milanés, Celene. 2020. "Why Community-Based Tourism and Rural Tourism in Developing and Developed Nations are Treated Differently? A Review" Sustainability 12, no. 15: 5938. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12155938

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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