Blue Economy: Community Case Studies Addressing the Poverty–Environment Nexus in Ocean and Coastal Management
- How the blue economy finds its application on-the-ground, particularly at local and community level.
- How local blue economy practices can help addressing the poverty–environment nexus, including by upscaling best practices.
2. Materials and Methods
- conservation and rehabilitation of coastal ecosystems and habitats;
- prevention and reduction of land-based pollution;
- freshwater resources management;
- fisheries, land and forest and other natural resources management;
- capacity development, networking, knowledge sharing and learning
3. Results: Community-Based Blue Economy Cases
3.1. China: Restoration and Sustainable Use of Seagrass Beds for Sea Cucumber Aquaculture
3.1.1. Project Context
3.1.2. Project Implementation
- Coordinate with the local management department to obtain permission to use the sea area;
- Develop and apply the method of sexual reproduction with artificial auxiliary to obtain the seeds of Zostera marina for restoring the seagrass beds;
- Organize technical training for fishers and provide necessary support to restore seagrass beds;
- Provide training for fishers on technology for sea cucumber culture in seagrass beds;
- Compile a technical manual of seagrass bed restoration and promote the project model.
3.1.3. Environmental Results
3.1.4. Socio-Economic Results
3.2. Samoa: Coral Reef Restoration and Sustainable Fisheries
3.2.1. Project Context
3.2.2. Project Implementation
- Sustain the protection of the ecological and biodiversity of the Lefagaoalii MPA with the application of sound management practices;
- Improve the environmental condition of threatened habitat and inshore resources and marine biodiversity;
- Promote ecotourism and develop income-generating opportunities for the village community;
- Raise awareness and build technical capacity of the Lefagaoalii community to manage the MPA sustainably;
- Promote active collaboration and partnership with relevant stakeholders and supporting partners for the effective management of project activities.
3.2.3. Environmental Results
3.2.4. Socio-Economic Results
3.3. Vietnam: Community-Based Management of Coastal and Marine Resources for Livelihood Improvement
3.3.1. Project Context
3.3.2. Project Implementation
- Breeding and stocking of species;
- Demarcation of zones for exploitation and protection of parent breeds;
- Installation of artificial reefs to replace reef habitat;
- Collection of water samples for environmental quality assessment.
3.3.3. Environmental Results
3.3.4. Socio-Economic Results
4. Discussion: Experiences and Lessons Learned
4.1 Science-Based Blue Economy
4.2. Community-Based Blue Economy
4.3. Visibility of Local Benefits and Practicality of Results
4.4. In the Sampled Cases, Communication, Awareness Raising, and Advocacy Were Found to be Key Elements
4.5. Multi-Stakeholders’ Partnerships
4.6. Partnerships Are Found to be Particularly Important for Scaling up Good Practices
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Questionnaire for Case Studies
- Project Title:
- Type of organization:
- Number of people served:
- SGP Contribution:
- UNDP contribution:
- In-Cash Co-financing:
- In-Kind Co-financing:
- Start Date:
- End Date:
- Please tell us about how the initiative started?
- What was the main goal of the initiative?
- What was the primary focus of the initiative(s) and how did they become a reality?
- Who were the key players?
- What are the main objectives of the initiative?
- What was the mission? Has the vision changed at all? If so, why?
- Give a brief description of the country context.
- Provide any other relevant information.
- Please list and explain which are/were the main project activities and how they were completed.
- What was the main objective of the work?
- Who were the target beneficiaries?
- What would you say are the key innovations that make your project stand out and were critical to successful environmental, social and economic outcomes?
- How did you engage the local community and key stakeholders to participate in the project?
- Where applicable please provide engineering drawings and dimensions of the equipment/technology produced/used?
- What were the main challenges the community faced when implementing the project?
- What did the organization do to overcome these challenges?
- At what phase of the project did these challenges arise (planning/implementation/evaluation)?
- What could have been done differently or better?
- What would you recommend for improving on future programming?
- Was there any special participation by women (e.g., as project proponents, implementers, beneficiaries). If yes, how vital was their participation in the project’s success?
- Please elaborate on the nature of the women’s active participation in this project (e.g., what were their roles, did they drive decision making)?
- Were the women economically empowered by the project activities? If yes, please include specifics (e.g., increase in income, increased financial management capacity, access to a long-term revenue source)
- Were the women’s social status improved as a result of the project activities? Please explain how. Has their participation in the decision-making process of their community increased?
- Please provide any statistics on the number of women involved in the project, or the number of women benefitted by the project?
- Did SGP assist grantees to acquire gender training?
- What action did SGP take to overcome gender barriers in achieving SGP project goals? In case any project created a gender issue (e.g., gender imbalance), what were those issues and what action did SGP take?
- Does SGP have a strategic partner to strengthen gender equality and gender empowerment in your projects?
- What measurable impact has the project had in terms of environmental protection since the beginning of the project? Where possible, please provide statistics and numbers that document the change or impact of the project over time.
- (Biodiversity) Have species, habitat or ecosystems been protected through your work? If so, please describe.
- How does your group measure the environmental impacts?
- What measurable change has there been in local incomes and job opportunities (change in average household income, job creation, revenues, livelihood diversification, livelihood/income diversification, market access, etc.)? Where possible, please provide statistics and numbers that document the change or impact of the project over time.
- Have there been secondary benefits (investments in infrastructure, poverty reduction, higher awareness, etc.)?
- Have revenues from the project been reinvested into school fees, hospitals, local infrastructure, etc.?
- In what ways has your initiative advocated for policy change?
- Has there been success in influencing policy at what level (community, institution, municipal, regional) and what were the critical factors that made that success possible?
- What have been the barriers and the successes removing these barriers?
- Have there been any regional (subnational) or national policies or laws that were enacted or changed as a result of your project?
- (Biodiversity specific) Has your community engaged in the planning, implementation or review of National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plans?
- (Climate Change specific) Has your community engaged in the planning, implementation or review of the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)?
- Was there any special participation by IP (e.g., as project proponents, implementers, beneficiaries)? If yes, how vital was their participation in the project’s success?
- Please provide any statistics on the number of IP involved in the project, or the number of IP benefitted by the project?
- Did you use a special methodology or approach to work with Indigenous communities such as participatory video?
- What are the key components that make this project sustainable (e.g., training, human resources, financial resources, capacity building, community participation, awareness, organizational support)?
- Which partner agencies and organizations, if any, are furthering project sustainability?
- What is needed to make the project more sustainable?
- What would you advise other communities who wish to create an effective and sustainable project to ensure sustainability?
- List of partners and their roles in the project/initiative success, how have they assisted in achieving the project’s goals?
- Lessons on the critical contributions of certain partners (e.g., universities for sampling, and monitoring and evaluation)
- How easy would it be to replicate the successes in a different context or country?
- What mistakes should be avoided if the project were to be replicated?
- Has your project been up-scaled? If yes, please explain how and which organization lead the up-scaling process
- Have you shared your successful model with other communities?
- What was the vehicle for knowledge exchange?
- How many new communities and beneficiaries are applying your model?
- If the model has been replicated, please explain how, with what support from which stakeholders, and how many beneficiaries.
- In your opinion, how important is exchanging peer-to-peer knowledge?
- Have you experienced barriers to successful knowledge exchange? If so, what are they, and how could they potentially be overcome?
- Give a brief description of the good practice (300 words maximum) highlighting the innovative features and results achieved by the project/activity.
- What are the lessons learned on Implementation, work with communities, technical lessons, policy lessons, M&E?
- Briefly describe SGP involvement and the technical support provided.
- Describe what worked well and how it was done.
- What were the key successes of this project?
- What factors supported the success?
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|Region||Number of Projects||Grant Amount||Co-financing in Cash||Co-financing in Kind|
|Asia and the Pacific||421||$10,674,350||$2,638,665||$9,305,024|
|Europe and the CIS||131||$2,870,050||$3,852,820||$1,377,131|
|Latin America and the Caribbean||124||$3,380,948||$2,142,957||$3,384,621|
|Project Title||Country||Duration||Project Funding||Co-Financing||Environmental Results||Socio-Economic Results|
|Restoration and sustainable use of seagrass beds for sea cucumber aquaculture||Shandong, China||Oct 2013–Sep 2015||$50,000||$39,492|
|Coral reef restoration and sustainable fisheries||Lefagaoalii, Samoa||Jun 2015 - Mar 2018||$30,000||$10,000|
|Community-based management of coastal and marine resources for livelihood improvement||Thuan Quy, Bhin Thuan, Viet Nam||Oct 2014 - Jun 2017||$48,000||$31,060|
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Chen, S.; De Bruyne, C.; Bollempalli, M. Blue Economy: Community Case Studies Addressing the Poverty–Environment Nexus in Ocean and Coastal Management. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4654. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114654
Chen S, De Bruyne C, Bollempalli M. Blue Economy: Community Case Studies Addressing the Poverty–Environment Nexus in Ocean and Coastal Management. Sustainability. 2020; 12(11):4654. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114654Chicago/Turabian Style
Chen, Sulan, Charlotte De Bruyne, and Manasa Bollempalli. 2020. "Blue Economy: Community Case Studies Addressing the Poverty–Environment Nexus in Ocean and Coastal Management" Sustainability 12, no. 11: 4654. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114654