From Progressive Property to Progressive Cities: Can Socially Sustainable Interpretations of Property Contribute toward Just and Inclusive City-Planning? Global Lessons
2. Property and the Conservative-Progressive Debate
2.1. Limitations and Opportunities of Progressive Property Scholarship
2.2. Progressive Property: Marooned in the US? The American-Centric Nature of Progressive Property Scholarship
2.3. Filling-in the Gaps Caused by Geographical Insularity: Moving on to Investigate Cities around the Globe
4. Analysis and Findings: From Progressive Property to Progressive Cities and Neighborhoods
4.1. How do Progressive Ideas about Property Help Shape More Inclusive Cities in the US?
4.1.1. New Jersey and the Mount Laurel Doctrine
Whether a developing municipality like Mount Laurel may validly, by a system of land use regulation, make it physically and economically impossible to provide low and moderate income housing in the municipality for the various categories of persons who need and want it and thereby, as Mount Laurel has, exclude such people from living within its confines because of the limited extent of their income and resources. Necessarily implicated are the broader questions of the right of such municipalities to limit the kinds of available housing and of any obligation to make possible a variety and choice of types of living conditions. (p.173)
Every such municipality must, by its land use regulations, presumptively make realistically possible an appropriate variety and choice of housing. More specifically, presumptively it cannot foreclose the opportunity of the classes of people mentioned for low and moderate income housing and in its regulations must affirmatively afford that opportunity, at least to the extent of the municipality’s fair share of the present and prospective regional need therefor. These obligations must be met unless the particular municipality can sustain the heavy burden of demonstrating peculiar circumstances which dictate it should not be required so to do. (p.174)
There cannot be the slightest doubt that shelter, along with food, are the most basic human needs…‘The question of whether a citizenry has adequate and sufficient housing is certainly one of the prime considerations in assessing the general health and welfare of that body...’. (p. 179)
It is plain beyond dispute that the proper provision for adequate housing of all categories of people is certainly an absolute essential in promotion of the general welfare required in all local land use regulation. (p.180)
4.1.2. Mount Laurel’s Reach in American Jurisprudence
4.2. How do Progressive Interpretations of Property Rights Help Shape Better Urban Environments in Israel?
4.2.1. How Recent Urban Regeneration Policies Support the Progressive Property Approach?
4.2.2. Implementing Progressive Property Theory in Urban Regeneration Practice
The constitutional right to property does not imply that it trumps other rights and interests. It is not an absolute right and at times it will be possible to rule against it. On one hand, the individual has the right to property, but on the other hand, there stands the public interest to enable the provision of goods and services that the free market finds it hard to supply, as well as other important societal goals such as protecting disadvantaged groups and individuals. Land-use planning facilitates the achievement of said goals by balancing the right to property with social needs.
4.3. How Does Progressive Property in Spain Help Provide Housing in the Face of Economic Meltdown?
4.4. Progressive Property in Brazil: Learning from the Global South
5. Summary and Conclusions: The Practical Applications of Progressive Property Scholarship in Urban Environments across the Globe
Conflicts of Interest
- United States of America Television Network. Mr. Robot Drama Television Series. 2015. Available online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2FU6BIJBWM&t=3s (accessed on 29 January 2020).
- Baron, J. The Contested Commitments of Property. Hastings L. J. 2010, 61, 917–967. [Google Scholar]
- Alexander, G.S.; Peñalver, E.M. Properties of Community. Theor. Inq. Law 2009, 10, 127–160. [Google Scholar]
- Rosser, E. The Ambition and Transformative Potential of Progressive Property. Calif. L. Rev. 2013, 101, 107–171. [Google Scholar]
- Hayek, F. The Road to Serfdom; The Institute of Economic Affairs: London, UK, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Friedman, J. Capitalism and Freedom; The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 1962. [Google Scholar]
- Demsetz, H. From Economic Man to Economic System: Essays on Human Behavior and the Institutions of Capitalism; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Chang, H.-J. 23 Things They Don’t Tell You About Capitalism; Penguin Books: New York, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Slaev, A. Coasean versus Pigovian Solutions to the Problem of Social Cost: The Role of Common Entitlements. Int. J. Commons 2017, 11, 950–968. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alexander, G. Ownership and Obligations: The Human Flourishing Theory of Property. Hong Kong L. J. 2013, 43, 451–462. [Google Scholar]
- Alexander, G. The Social-Obligation Norm in American Property Law. Cornell L. Rev. 2009, 94, 745–819. [Google Scholar]
- Penalver, E. Land Virtues. Cornell L. Rev. 2009, 94, 821–888. [Google Scholar]
- Dagan, H. Takings and Distributive Justice. Va. L. Rev. 1999, 85, 741–804. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations General Assembly. Draft outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development (Habitat III). In Proceedings of the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development, Quito, Ecuador, 17–20 October 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Glaeser, E. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier; Penguin Books: New York, NY, USA, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Valverde, M. Everyday Law on the Street: City Governance in an Age of Diversity; University of Chicago Press: London, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Dehaibi, L. The Case for an Inclusive Human Right to Property: Social Importance and Individual Self-Realization. UWO J. Leg. Stud. 2015, 6, 1. [Google Scholar]
- Rosser, E. Destabilizing Property. Conn. L. Rev. 2015, 48, 397–472. [Google Scholar]
- Merrill, T.W.; Smith, H.E. The Morality of Property. Wm. Mary L. Rev. 2007, 48, 1849–1895. [Google Scholar]
- Smith, H. Mind the Gap: The Indirect Relation Between Ends and Means in American Property Law. Cornell L. Rev. 2009, 94, 959–989. [Google Scholar]
- Nussbaum, M.C. Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Ulas-Ince, O. Property. In The Encyclopedia of Political Thought; Gibbons, M.T., Ed.; Wiley-Blackwell: London, UK, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Horwitz, M.J. Republicanism and Liberalism in American Constitutional Thought. Wm. Mary L. Rev. 1987, 29, 57–74. [Google Scholar]
- Agard Pocock, J.G. The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, USA, 1975; pp. 506–552. [Google Scholar]
- Edgar, A.; Sedgwick, P. Cultural Theory: The Key Concepts, 2nd ed.; Routledge: London, UK, 2008; pp. 187–192. [Google Scholar]
- Huyler, J. Was locke a liberal? Indep. Rev. 1997, 1, 523–542. [Google Scholar]
- Israel, E.; Frenkel, A. The Distribution of Capital Forms between Cities and Suburbs and Their Impact on Social Justice in Space. Urban Geogr. 2015, 36, 578–607. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hale, C.A. Jose Maria Luis Mora and the Structure of Mexican Liberalism. Hisp. Am. Hist. Rev. 1967, 45, 196–227. [Google Scholar]
- Kristenson, O. Pastor in the Shadow of Violence: Gustavo Gutiérrez as a Public Pastoral Theologian in Peru in the 1980s and 1990s. Ph.D. Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Crawford, C. The Social Function of Property and the Human Capacity to Flourish. Fordham Law Rev. 2011, 80, 1089–1134. [Google Scholar]
- Mirow, M.C. The Social-Obligation Norm of Property: Duguit, Hayem, and Others. Fla J. Int. Law 2010, 22, 191–226. [Google Scholar]
- Dagan, H. Property: Values and Institutions; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Page, J. Property Diversity and its Implications; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Brooks, M. Planning Theory for Practitioners; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Freeman, S. Illiberal Libertarians: Why Libertarianism is Not a Liberal View. Phil. Pub. Aff. 2001, 30, 105–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mulvaney, T.M. Progressive Property Moving Forward. Cal. L. Rev. 2014, 5, 349–373. [Google Scholar]
- Webster, C.; Lai, L.W.C. Property Rights, Planning and Markets: Managing Spontaneous Cities; Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, UK, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Dyal-chand, R. Sharing the Cathedral. Conn. Law Rev. 2013, 46, 647–723. [Google Scholar]
- De-Shalit, A. Political Philosophy and Empowering Citizens. Pol. Stud. 2004, 52, 802–818. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Packer, J. On the Content of Minority Rights. In Do We Need Minority Rights? Conceptual Issues; Aikk, J., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 1996; pp. 121–178. [Google Scholar]
- Smith, S.C. A Public Trust Argument for Public Access to Private Conservation Land. Duke L. J. 2002, 52, 629–650. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Alexander, G.S. The Global Debate over Constitutional Property: Lessons for American Takings Jurisprudence; The University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL, USA, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Lubens, R. The Social Obligation of Property Ownership: A Comparison of German and U.S. Law. Available online: http://law.bepress.com/expresso/eps/1607 (accessed on 1 January 2020).
- Lovett, J.A. Progressive Property in Action: The Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003. Neb. L. Rev. 2011, 89, 739–818. [Google Scholar]
- Foster, S.R.; Bonilla, D. The Social Function of Property: A Comparative Law Perspective. Fordham L. Rev. 2011, 80, 101–113. [Google Scholar]
- France-Hudson, B. Private Property’s Hidden Potential. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Smit, A.; Valiante, M. Introduction. In Public Interest, Private Property: Law and Planning Policy in Canada; Smit, A., Valiante, M., Eds.; UBC Press: Vancouver, Canada, 2016; pp. 1–33. [Google Scholar]
- Dalton, T.R. Rights for the Landless: Comparing Approaches To Historical Injustice in Brazil and South Africa. Columbia Human Rights Law Rev. 2012, 44, 171–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Santinoni, V.F. The Social Function of Property Rights in Brazil. 2006. Available online: http://repositories.cdlib.org/bple/alacde/34 (accessed on 1 January 2020).
- Dos Santos Cunha, A. The Social Function of Property in Brazilian Law. Fordham Law Rev. 2011, 80, 1171–1181. [Google Scholar]
- Bonilla, D. Liberalism and Property in Colombia: Property as a Right and Property as a Social Function. Fordham Law Rev. 2011, 80, 1135–1170. [Google Scholar]
- The European Union. Urban Europe: Statistics on Cities, Towns and Suburbs; Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Janssen-Jansen, L.; Spaans, M.; van der Veen, M. Non-Financial Compensation in International Comparative Research. In New Instruments in Spatial Planning: An International Perspective on Non-financial Compensation; Janssen-Jansen, L., Spaans, M., van der Veen, M., Eds.; IOS Press: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008; pp. 1–15. [Google Scholar]
- Mualam, N.; Barak, N. Evaluating Comparative Research: Mapping and Assessing Current Trends in Built Heritage Studies. Sustainability 2019, 11, 677. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Patton, C.V.; Sawicki, D.S.; Clark, J.J. Basic Methods of Policy Analysis and Planning, 3rd ed.; Routledge: London, UK, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Zingales, L. A Capitalism for the People: Recapturing the Lost Genius of American Prosperity; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Rajan, R.G.; Zingales, L. Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, USA, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Massey, D.S.; Albright, L.; Casciano, R.; Derickson, E.; Kinsey, D.N. Climbing Mount Laurel: The Struggle for Affordable Housing and Social Mobility in an American Suburb; Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Southern Burlington County NAACP. Et al. vs. Township of Mount Laurel, et al. 119 N.J. Super. 164 (1972). Available online: https://law.justia.com/cases/new-jersey/appellate-division-published/1972/119-n-j-super-164-0.html (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Hickey, R.; Sturtevant, L. Thaden, E. Achieving Lasting Affordability Through Inclusionary Housing; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy Working Paper; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Southern Burlington County NAACP et al. v. Mount Laurel Township et al., 92 N.J. 168 (1983). Available online: https://law.justia.com/cases/new-jersey/supreme-court/1983/92-n-j-158-0.html (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Parkinson, M. The Thatcher Government’s Urban Policy, 1979–1989: A Review. Town Plan. Rev. 1989, 60, 421–440. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hanley, R. Some Jersey Towns, Giving in to Courts, Let in Modest Homes. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/1984/02/29/nyregion/some-jersey-towns-giving-in-to-courts-let-in-modest-homes.html (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Kirp, L.D. Here Comes the Neighborhood. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/20/opinion/sunday/here-comes-the-neighborhood.html (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Home Builders Association of Northern California v. City of Napa Valley Community, 90 Cal.App.4th 188 (Cal. Ct. App. 2001). Available online: https://casetext.com/case/home-builders-association-v-city-of-napa (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- California Building Industry Ass’n v. City of San Jose; 61 Cal. 4th 435. 2015. Available online: https://casetext.com/case/cal-bldg-indus-assn-v-city-of-san-jose-5 (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Town of Telluride v. Lot Thirty-Four Venture L.L.C., 3 p.3d 30 (Colo. 2000). Available online: https://law.justia.com/cases/colorado/supreme-court/2000/98sc547-0.html (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Board of Supervisors v. De Groff Enterprises, 198 S.E. 2d 600 (Va. 1973). Available online: https://law.justia.com/cases/virginia/supreme-court/1973/214-va-235-1.html (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Weiss, B.M. Progressive Property Theory and Housing Justice Campaigns. Uc Irvine Law Rev. 2019, 10, 251–285. [Google Scholar]
- Thaden, E.; Wang, R. Inclusionary Housing in the United States; Working Paper WP17ET1; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Jacobs, H.M. Private Property in Historical and Global Contexts and Its Lessons for Planning. In Public Interest, Private Property: Law and Planning Policy in Canada; Smit, A., Valiante, M., Eds.; UBC Press: Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2016; pp. 37–58. [Google Scholar]
- Capps, K. Inclusionary Zoning May Face a Supreme Court Test. 2019. Available online: https://www.citylab.com/equity/2019/10/supreme-court-inclusionary-zoning-constitutional-takings-clause/596863/ (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Eagle, S.J. Land Use Regulation and Good Intentions. J. L. Use Environ. Law 2017, 33, 87–144. [Google Scholar]
- Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty, 5752-1992. Available online: http://knesset.gov.il/laws/special/eng/BasicLawLiberty.pdf (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Carmon, N. Urban Renewal: A Strategy for Updating the Older Housing Stock; Center for Urban and Regional Planning Working Paper; The Technion: Haifa, Israel, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Goldschmidt, A.; Davidson, L. A Concise History of the Middle East, 9th ed.; Westview Press: Boulder, CO, USA, 2010; pp. 299–305. [Google Scholar]
- Carmon, N.; Hill, M. Project Renewal: An Israeli Experiment in Neighbourhood Rehabilitation. Habitat Int. 1984, 8, 117–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alterman, A.; Churchman, A. Israel’s Neighborhood Rehabilitation Program: The Great Experiment and its Lessons; The Technion: Haifa, Israel, 1991. [Google Scholar]
- Carmon, N. Three Generations of Urban Renewal Policies: Analysis and Policy Implications. Geoforum 1999, 30, 145–158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alterman, R. Much more than land assembly: Land readjustment for the supply of urban public services. In Analyzing Land Readjustment; Hong, Y.H., Needham, B., Eds.; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2007; pp. 57–85. [Google Scholar]
- Friedman, A. Sustainable Urban Renewal: The Tel Aviv Dilemma. Sustainability 2014, 6, 2527–2537. [Google Scholar]
- Land Law, 5729-1969, 23 LSI 283. Available online: https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/israel5&div=29&id=&page= (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Shenhav, G. Urban Renewal for a Global City. In Proceedings of the 2014 Shanghai Ctbuh Conference; Wood, A., Zheng, S., Eds.; Council on Tall Buildings and Human Habitat: Shanghai, China, 2014; pp. 336–342. [Google Scholar]
- Eckert, J. Dislocation and Relocation of the Urban Elderly: Social Networks as Mediators of Relocation Stress. Hum. Org. 1983, 41, 39–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hansmann, H. Condominium and Cooperative Housing: Transactional Efficiency, Tax Subsidies, and Tenure Choice. J. Legal Stud. 1991, 20, 25–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Supreme Court of Israel. Civil Appeal No. 3511/13 Regina Shwartzberger v. Shalom Marine; Supreme Court of Israel: Jerusalem, Israel, 2014.
- Hatsaot Hok HaMemshala (H.H) [Draft Bills submitted by the Israeli Government] 568, 1023 Published on Adar Alef 13, 5776 (22 February 2016). Available online: https://www.nevo.co.il/law_word/law15/memshala-1023.pdf (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Evict and Build (Compensation) Law, 5767-2006. Available online: https://www.nevo.co.il/law_html/Law01/999_544.htm (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- District Court of Tel Aviv. Civil Appeal No. 54948-06-12 Yahli Bana Lee v. Lea Yitzhaki; District Court of Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv, Israel, 2013.
- Yulis, C.; Varhaftig, E. Summary of Recommendations on Removing Barriers to Urban Renewal; Israel’s Ministry of Justice: Jerusalem, Israel, 2020.
- Shahar, M. Who Will Save Refusing Apartment Owners? 2012. Available online: http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4248290,00.html (accessed on 10 January 2020).
- Planners for Planning Rights. Urban Renewal: Social Aspects in Planning; Bimkom Publishing: Jerusalem, Israel, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- Lalum, A. The Tragedy of Co-Ownership in Urban Rehabilitation Projects. Mekarkein L. Rev. 2014, 13, 3–50. [Google Scholar]
- The Parliament of Israel, Transcripts of The Discussions of the Special Committee on Urban Renewal: Meeting No. 218 (2015). Available online: http://www.knessetnow.co.il/ (accessed on 1 January 2020).
- District Court of Lod. Civil Action No. 55587-12-11 Aminadav et al. vs. Kazi; District Court of Lod: Lod, Israel, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- District Court of Tel Aviv. Administrative Petition No.50776-04-15 Ofer Lezovsky vs. Tel Aviv’s Appeal Tribunal; District Court of Tel Aviv: Tel Aviv, Israel, 2015.
- Osorio, L. The Social Functions of Property in Latin America. In Take Back the Land! The Social Function of Land and Housing, Resistances and Alternatives; Mathivet, C., Ed.; International Organisation of Engineers, Experts and Researchers: Dharma Vihar, India, 2014; pp. 150–157. [Google Scholar]
- Emanuelli, M.S. The Social Function of Land Ownership: Social Claims and Legal Decisions in Rural Brazil. In Take Back the Land! The Social Function of Land and Housing, Resistances and Alternatives; Mathivet, C., Ed.; International Organisation of Engineers, Experts and Researchers: Dharma Vihar, India, 2014; pp. 163–168. [Google Scholar]
- Löhnig, M. The “Social Function of Property” in German Law. In Léon Duguit and the Social Obligation Norm of Property: A Translation and Global Exploration; Springer Nature: Berlin, Germany, 2019; pp. 111–122. [Google Scholar]
- Masferrer, A. Plurality of Laws, Legal Traditions and Codification in Spain. J. Civ. Law Stud. 2011, 4, 419–448. [Google Scholar]
- Villiers, C. The Spanish Legal Tradition: An Introduction to the Spanish Law and Legal System (Laws of the Nation Series); Dartmouth Publishing Company: Aldershot, UK, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- The Spanish Constitution—Constitución Española (C.E.) of 1978. Available online: https://www.boe.es/buscar/act.php?id=BOE-A-1978-31229 (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Nasarre-Aznar, S. Aznar, S. A Legal Perspective of the Origin and the Globalization of the Current Financial Crisis and the Resulting Reforms in Spain. In Contemporary Housing Issues in a Globalized World; Kenna, P., Ed.; Routledge: Abingdon, UK, 2014; pp. 37–72. [Google Scholar]
- Duca, J.V.; Muellbauer, J.; Murphy, A. Housing Markets and the Financial Crisis of 2007–2009: Lessons for the Future. J. Financ. Stab. 2010, 6, 203–217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gili, M. The mental health risks of economic crisis in Spain: Evidence from primary care centres, 2006 and 2010. Eur. J. Public Health 2012, 23, 103–107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Dol, K.; Mazo, E.C.; Llop, N.L.; Hoekstra, J.; Fuentes, G.C.; Etxarri, A.E. Regionalization of housing policies? An exploratory study of Andalusia, Catalonia and the Basque Country. J. Hous. Built Environ. 2017, 32, 581–598. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Molina Roig, E. Tenancy Law and Housing Policy in Multi-Level Europe National; National Report for Spain; European Union: Brussels, Belgium, 2013; pp. 32–33. [Google Scholar]
- Nasarre Aznar, S. New Trends in Condominium Law and Access to Housing in Post-Crisis Spain. In Private Commuunities and Urban Governance: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives; Lehavi, A., Ed.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2016; pp. 165–190. [Google Scholar]
- Romero, M.; Berges, A. Spanish Mortgage Market: Court Rulings’ Implications for Regulation. Span. Econ. Financ. Outlook 2015, 4, 47–53. [Google Scholar]
- Ginty, T. The PAH: Defending the right to housing in Spain. 2015. Available online: https://roarmag.org/essays/pah-human-right-housing-spain/ (accessed on 19 April 2020).
- Mount, I. Shared Ownership: A Solution to the Affordable Housing Conundrum, Fortune. 13 May 2015. Available online: http://fortune.com/2015/05/13/shared-ownership-a-solution-to-the-affordable-housing-conundrum (accessed on 1 April 2020).
- Andalusian Law No. 4/2013 of October 1, 2013, amending Law No. 1/2010 of March 8 (Published respectively in BOJA no. 198 of October 2013 and BOE no. 77 of 30 March 2010). Available online: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/boja/2013/198/1 (accessed on 1 January 2020).
- Catalan Law No. 18/2007 of December 28, 2007 (Ley 18/2007, de 28 de diciembre, del derecho a la vivienda) (BOE 27/02/2008 núm. 50). Available online: https://www.boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2008-3657 (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Amnesty International. Evicted Rights: Rights to Housing and Mortgage Evictions in Spain; Amnesty International: Madrid, Spain, 2015. [Google Scholar]
- The Constitution of Brazil- Constituicao da Republica Federariva Do Brasil. 1988. Available online: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm (accessed on 1 January 2020).
- Lenhart, W.; Reflections on the Social Function of Property in Brazil. International Property Rights Index. Available online: http://internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/brazil (accessed on 25 May 2019).
- Leite, C.; Acosta, C.; Militelli, F.; Jajamovich, G.; Wilderom, M.; Bonduki, N.; Somekh, N.; Herling, T. Social Urbanism in Latin America; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Le Corbusier. Congress Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), La Charte d’Athenes (The Athens Charter), 1933. Translated by J. Tyrwhitt; The Library of the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1946. [Google Scholar]
- Campos, D. Elementos de Direito Urbanístico; Manole: Barueri, Brazil, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Estatuto da Cidade—Federal Law n. 257/2001. Available online: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/LEIS_2001/L10257.html (accessed on 10 January 2020).
- Da Silva, J.A. Direito Urbanístico Brasileiro, 6th ed.; Malheiros: Sao Paulo, Brasil, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Luft, R. A Propriedade E Sua Função Social Como Mecanismo de Efetivação Do Direito Fundamental à Moradia No Ambiente Das Políticas Públicas. In Anais do VI Congresso Brasileiro de Direito Urbanístico—Brasília 2010: Por um Direito Urbanístico sem Fronteiras; Saule, N., Jr., Ed.; Lex Magister: Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2010; p. 158. [Google Scholar]
- Maricato, E. The Statute of the Peripheral City. In The City Statute of Brazil: A Commentary; Celso Santos, C., Rossbach, A., Eds.; Cities Alliance and Ministry of Cities: Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2010; pp. 5–22. [Google Scholar]
- Del Nero, J.A. O Significado Jurídico Da Expressão “Função Social Da Propriedade”. Revista da Faculdade de Direito de São Bernardo do Campo 1997, 3, 79–97. [Google Scholar]
- Ondetti, G. The Social Function of Property, land rights and social welfare in Brazil. Land Use Pol. 2016, 50, 29–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ministério da Justiça. Parcelamento, Edificação Ou Utilização Compulsórios e IPTU Progressivo no Tempo: Regulamentação e Aplicação. Available online: http://pensando.mj.gov.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/PoD_56_web1.pdf (accessed on 20 April 2020).
- Secretaria Municipal de Desenvolvimento Urbano. Relatório Anual–2018 E Plano de Trabalho–2019 de Aplicação Dos Instrumentos Indutores Da Função Social Da Propriedade; SMDU: São Paulo, Brazil, 2019.
- Husa, J. About the Methodology of Comparative Law—Some Comments Concerning the Wonderland. 2007. Available online: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1085970 (accessed on 30 May 2019).
- Eberle, E.J. The Method and Role of Comparative Law. 2008. Available online: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1265659 (accessed on 6 May 2019).
- Örücü, E. The Enigma of Comparative Law: Variations on a Theme for the Twenty-first Century; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Sacco, R. Legal Formants: A Dynamic Approach To Comparative Law. Am. J. Comp. Law 1991, 39, 1–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davy, B. Land Policy: Planning and the Spatial Consequences of Property; Ashgate: Surrey, UK, 2012. [Google Scholar]
|Jurisdiction||Property’s Standing as a Constitutional Right||Notable Steps with Respect to Progressive Property||Which Field Is Impacted by Progressive Property Ideology?||Whose Obligation?||Type of Property Owner Obligation||Critique||Support||Implementation||Type of Conflicting Interests|
|USA||Protected through the Fifth Amendment as a foundational right.||Approval of statutes pertaining to inclusionary zoning.||Affordable Housing.||Developers/owners.||To supply affordable housing units on their plots.||Inclusionary zoning amounts to takings of property. Owners should not be asked to solve a problem created by government (e.g., too few housing permits, under-supply, or entrenched discrimination).||Inclusionary zoning statutes ‘tip the balance’ towards achieving just and equitable outcomes.||Approval of inclusionary zoning statutes intensified in the past 20 years. About 900 local jurisdictions approved inclusionary ordinances that designate a certain percentage of housing units as affordable, or impose a fee to secure said goal.||Interests of developers versus interests of those in need of affordable housing.|
|Israel||Basic human right, which amounts to a Constitutional right according to the Israeli Human Dignity and Freedom Act of 1992.||New legislative measures pertaining to multi-owned apartments buildings in Urban Renewal Areas. Based on a democratic perception of living in condominiums.||Urban Renewal.||Few apartment owners, when the majority of owners in the co-owned apartment building agree to sign an agreement with a developer to renew their building.||Enable urban rejuvenation projects.||The new measures were considered by some as a crude violation of the right to property held by those objecting to the project.||The application of the social obligation theory enables to speed up urban regeneration and prevents veto by co-owners, in light of competing social interests.||Civil liability lawsuits have been filed, resulting in heavy fines imposed by the courts on co-owners who blatantly violated the norms set out in the new legislation. In several cases, the fines imposed urged those objecting to urban renewal to settle.||Majority of apartment owners in multi-owned buildings versus. fewer apartments owners;Tool to deal with conflicts of interests: Democratization.|
|Spain||Property rights are enshrined in the Spanish Constitution. However, it also prescribes that the social function shall determine the boundary of property rights.||New measures designed to provide social help for vulnerable households; redefining a broad right for housing; enabling temporary expropriations of residential properties owned by corporations, and fining of those who own empty dwelling units.||Housing.||Mostly banks, and other financial and real estate corporations.||Help property-less owners, and those with mortgage arrears.||Measures ‘go too far’, therefore impinge unreasonably on the right to property.||The proposed measures help in preventing forced evictions in the face of adverse economic circumstances.||Central government challenged in Court the measures introduced by regional governments.||Banks and financial institutions versus owners with mortgage arrears.|
|Brazil||Property rights are enshrined in the Brazilian Constitution (§5, XXII). However, it also prescribes that all property must fulfill its social function (§5, XXIII). According to §182, paragraph 2, urban property fulfils its social function when it meets the fundamental requirements of city ordinance expressed in the master plan.||New legislative and administrative measures taken at the local level in order to compel speculators to observe the social function of urban property through the PEUC framework.||Urban development (redistribution of urban land).||Landowners in the city.||Obligation to avoid empty properties and to avoid keeping property under-used.||PEUC framework is confronted by lack of political will and technical expertise to ensure its implementation. PEUC also leads to a general disrespect of private property, as it utilizes arbitrary and ambiguous measures.||The proposed measures prevent speculation. They also help cities maintain existing housing stock, and encourage public-private cooperation in building projects in undeveloped parcels.||Few municipalities have initiated the implementation of the PEUC framework, none of them having yet reached the final, expropriation phase.||Interests of owners of under-used property versus interests of the city and the community at large.|
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Share and Cite
Mualam, N.; Sotto, D. From Progressive Property to Progressive Cities: Can Socially Sustainable Interpretations of Property Contribute toward Just and Inclusive City-Planning? Global Lessons. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4472. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114472
Mualam N, Sotto D. From Progressive Property to Progressive Cities: Can Socially Sustainable Interpretations of Property Contribute toward Just and Inclusive City-Planning? Global Lessons. Sustainability. 2020; 12(11):4472. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114472Chicago/Turabian Style
Mualam, Nir, and Debora Sotto. 2020. "From Progressive Property to Progressive Cities: Can Socially Sustainable Interpretations of Property Contribute toward Just and Inclusive City-Planning? Global Lessons" Sustainability 12, no. 11: 4472. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114472