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Open AccessArticle

Frames in Outdoor Environmental Education Programs: What We Communicate and Why We Think It Matters

1
Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, 60200 Brno, Czech Republic
2
College of Education, University of Arizona, 1430 E. Second Street, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
3
Department of Preschool and Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, 40096 Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
4
Department of Environmental Studies, Faculty of Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, 40096 Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(11), 4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114451
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 27 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 30 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Science Education Promoting Sustainability)
This paper discusses the application of frame analysis as a method of designing and evaluating outdoor environmental education programs. In particular, it investigates what frames are communicated in these programs, why and how program leaders focus on communicating particular frames, and how students interact with these frames. Five outdoor environmental education programs for elementary school students were analyzed. We used a qualitative approach that combined field observation, interviews with program leaders (N = 15), qualitative findings based on questionnaires collected from the participants after completing the programs (N = 365), and interviews with some of the students (N = 10). According to the results, while the leaders intensively applied various surface frames to attract student interest and organize the program activities, the deep frames aimed for in the main program messages connected with the program goals often remained implicit and were not recognized by the students. View Full-Text
Keywords: outdoor environmental education; frames; program evaluation; qualitative outdoor environmental education; frames; program evaluation; qualitative
MDPI and ACS Style

Činčera, J.; Johnson, B.; Kroufek, R.; Kolenatý, M.; Šimonová, P. Frames in Outdoor Environmental Education Programs: What We Communicate and Why We Think It Matters. Sustainability 2020, 12, 4451.

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