Next Article in Journal
Pay Me Later is Not Always Positively Associated with Bank Risk Reduction—From the Perspective of Long-Term Compensation and Black Box Effect
Previous Article in Journal
Optimisation of Ecological Leisure Industrial Planning Based on Improved GIS-AHP: A Case Study in Shapingba District, Chongqing, China
 
 
Article

Are Personal Electric Vehicles Sustainable? A Hybrid E-Bike Case Study

Department of Electronics and Computers, Transilvania University of Brașov, 500036 Brașov, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2020, 12(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010032
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 12 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 December 2019 / Published: 18 December 2019
As the title suggests, the sustainability of personal electric vehicles is in question. In terms of life span, range, comfort, and safety, electric vehicles, such as e-cars and e-buses, are much better than personal electric vehicles, such as e-bikes. However, electric vehicles present greater costs and increased energy consumption. Also, the impact on environment, health, and fitness is more negative than that of personal electric vehicles. Since transportation vehicles can benefit from hybrid electric storage solutions, we address the following question: Is it possible to reach a compromise between sustainability and technology constraints by implementing a low-cost hybrid personal electric vehicle with improved life span and range that is also green? Our methodology consists of life cycle assessment and performance analyses tackling the facets of the sustainability challenges (economy, society, and environment) and limitations of the electric storage solutions (dependent on technology and application) presented herein. The hybrid electric storage system of the proposed hybrid e-bike is made of batteries, supercapacitors, and corresponding power electronics, allowing the optimal control of power flows between the system’s components and application’s actuators. Our hybrid e-bike costs less than a normal e-bike (half or less), does not depend on battery operation for short periods of time (a few seconds), has better autonomy than most personal electric vehicles (more than 60 km), has a greater life span (a few years more than a normal e-bike), has better energy efficiency (more than 90%), and is much cleaner due to the reduced number of batteries replaced per life time (one instead of two or three). View Full-Text
Keywords: life cycle assessment; personal electric vehicles; hybrid energy storage system; e-bike life cycle assessment; personal electric vehicles; hybrid energy storage system; e-bike
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Machedon-Pisu, M.; Borza, P.N. Are Personal Electric Vehicles Sustainable? A Hybrid E-Bike Case Study. Sustainability 2020, 12, 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010032

AMA Style

Machedon-Pisu M, Borza PN. Are Personal Electric Vehicles Sustainable? A Hybrid E-Bike Case Study. Sustainability. 2020; 12(1):32. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010032

Chicago/Turabian Style

Machedon-Pisu, Mihai, and Paul Nicolae Borza. 2020. "Are Personal Electric Vehicles Sustainable? A Hybrid E-Bike Case Study" Sustainability 12, no. 1: 32. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12010032

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop