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Open AccessArticle

Nitrified Human Urine as a Sustainable and Socially Acceptable Fertilizer: An Analysis of Consumer Acceptance in Msunduzi, South Africa

1
Sustainable Agroecosystems Group, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
2
Natural Resource Policy Group, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
3
School of Life Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal 3629, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(9), 2456; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092456
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
Sustainable smallholder farming is contingent on fertilizer access. Soils across Africa are typically nutrient deficient, a condition exacerbated by long-term nutrient mining. Nitrified urine fertilizer is a nutrient-rich and hygienically safe solution derived from human urine. It has the potential to provide a sustainable source of soil nutrients to low and middle-income countries struggling with food insecurity challenges. This study presents findings of a survey that assessed public acceptance within Msunduzi, Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa towards the use of nitrified urine fertilizer. Results indicate that in general attitudes were much more positive towards the use of nitrified urine fertilizer than raw urine as a soil amendment. Residents living within rural zones of the municipality (78.5%), as opposed to urban (65.7%) and peri-urban (65.2%), and younger individuals within the sampled population were found to be the most receptive to the use of nitrified urine fertilizer. Our findings also underscore the complex set of factors that shape attitudes towards a topic such as the use of human waste as a fertilizer, which are crucial in shaping the legitimacy of an emerging technology such as urine nitrification. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; nitrified urine; consumer acceptance; fertilizer; Msunduzi; South Africa sustainability; nitrified urine; consumer acceptance; fertilizer; Msunduzi; South Africa
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Wilde, B.C.; Lieberherr, E.; Okem, A.E.; Six, J. Nitrified Human Urine as a Sustainable and Socially Acceptable Fertilizer: An Analysis of Consumer Acceptance in Msunduzi, South Africa. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2456.

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