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Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082266

Transformation of Biomass Waste into Sustainable Organic Fertilizers

1
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan
3
Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
5
Centre for Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
PDF [604 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]

Abstract

The management of solid waste presents a challenge for developing countries as the
generation of waste is increasing at a rapid and alarming rate. Much awareness towards the
sustainability and technological advances for solid waste management has been implemented to
reduce the generation of unnecessary waste. The recycling of this waste is being applied to produce
valuable organic matter, which can be used as fertilizers or amendments to improve the soil structure.
This review studies the sustainable transformation of various types of biomass waste such as animal
manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and food waste, into organic fertilizers and their
impact on waste minimization and agricultural enhancement. The side effects of these organic
fertilizers towards the soil are evaluated as the characteristics of these fertilizers will differ depending
on the types of waste used, in addition to the varying chemical composition of the organic fertilizers.
This work will provide an insight to the potential management of biomass waste to be produced into
organic fertilizer and the advantages of substituting chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer derived
from the biomass waste.
Keywords: biomass; organic fertilizer; plant growth; sustainability; waste biomass; organic fertilizer; plant growth; sustainability; waste
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chew, K.W.; Chia, S.R.; Yen, H.-W.; Nomanbhay, S.; Ho, Y.-C.; Show, P.L. Transformation of Biomass Waste into Sustainable Organic Fertilizers. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2266.

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