Next Article in Journal
Same Same but Different: How and Why Banks Approach Sustainability
Previous Article in Journal
A New Multi-Criteria Assessment Model Combining GRA Techniques with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Entropy-Based TOPSIS Method for Sustainable Building Materials Supplier Selection
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Sustainability 2019, 11(8), 2266;

Transformation of Biomass Waste into Sustainable Organic Fertilizers

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan
Institute of Sustainable Energy, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
Centre for Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 15 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
PDF [604 KB, uploaded 15 April 2019]


The management of solid waste presents a challenge for developing countries as the
generation of waste is increasing at a rapid and alarming rate. Much awareness towards the
sustainability and technological advances for solid waste management has been implemented to
reduce the generation of unnecessary waste. The recycling of this waste is being applied to produce
valuable organic matter, which can be used as fertilizers or amendments to improve the soil structure.
This review studies the sustainable transformation of various types of biomass waste such as animal
manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and food waste, into organic fertilizers and their
impact on waste minimization and agricultural enhancement. The side effects of these organic
fertilizers towards the soil are evaluated as the characteristics of these fertilizers will differ depending
on the types of waste used, in addition to the varying chemical composition of the organic fertilizers.
This work will provide an insight to the potential management of biomass waste to be produced into
organic fertilizer and the advantages of substituting chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer derived
from the biomass waste.
Keywords: biomass; organic fertilizer; plant growth; sustainability; waste biomass; organic fertilizer; plant growth; sustainability; waste
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chew, K.W.; Chia, S.R.; Yen, H.-W.; Nomanbhay, S.; Ho, Y.-C.; Show, P.L. Transformation of Biomass Waste into Sustainable Organic Fertilizers. Sustainability 2019, 11, 2266.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top