Soil pollution has become a severe environmental issue in China over the past few decades due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. However, traditionally, few laws and regulations have focused on soil pollution in China. In response to this emerging threat, new policies, regulations, and measures have been proposed and implemented in recent years. This paper summarizes the existing law, action plan, regulations, and risk control rules regarding soil pollution prevention in China. Moreover, it compares soil pollution management between China and other developed countries. China has now established a comprehensive soil management system based on risk-based control. Regulations have been formulated for agricultural land, contaminated land, and industrial and mining land. Separate risk control rules exist for agricultural land and development land. Agricultural land can be classified as priority protection, safe utilization, and strict management with respect to soil pollution levels and agricultural products. The risk control rules for development land set different standards for sensitive land and non-sensitive land. Comparisons with developed countries show that their experiences of risk-based control and the “polluter pays” principle have been adopted in China. Additional scientific research and public participation are recommended for future updates to these policies. This study provides a comprehensive introduction to the newly established soil management system in China.
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