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Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Approaches for Outdoor Recreation

1
USDA Forest Service, 1992 Folwell Ave, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA
2
Northern Institute of Applied Climate Science, 410 MacInnes Dr, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
3
College of Forest Resources and Environmental Science, Michigan Technological University, 410 MacInnes Dr, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 7030; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11247030
Received: 30 October 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 5 December 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Outdoor Recreation, Nature-Based Tourism, and Sustainability)
Climate change will alter opportunities and demand for outdoor recreation through altered winter weather conditions and season length, climate-driven changes in user preferences, and damage to recreational infrastructure, among other factors. To ensure that outdoor recreation remains sustainable in the face of these challenges, natural resource managers may need to adapt their recreation management. One of the major challenges of adapting recreation to climate change is translating broad concepts into specific, tangible actions. Using a combination of in-depth interviews of recreational managers and a review of peer-reviewed literature and government reports, we developed a synthesis of impacts, strategies, and approaches, and a tiered structure that organizes this information. Six broad climate adaptation strategies and 25 more specific approaches were identified and organized into a “recreation menu”. The recreation menu was tested with two national forests in the US in multi-day workshops designed to integrate these concepts into real-world projects that were at the beginning stages of the planning process. We found that the recreation menu was broad yet specific enough to be applied to recreation-focused projects with different objectives and climate change impacts. These strategies and approaches serve as stepping stones to enable natural resource and recreation managers to translate broad concepts into targeted and prescriptive actions for implementing adaptation. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; adaptation; outdoor recreation; infrastructure; recreation management; visitation management; tourism management; facility management climate change; adaptation; outdoor recreation; infrastructure; recreation management; visitation management; tourism management; facility management
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O’Toole, D.; Brandt, L.A.; Janowiak, M.K.; Schmitt, K.M.; Shannon, P.D.; Leopold, P.R.; Handler, S.D.; Ontl, T.A.; Swanston, C.W. Climate Change Adaptation Strategies and Approaches for Outdoor Recreation. Sustainability 2019, 11, 7030.

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