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Open AccessReview

Biodiversity Offset Program Design and Implementation

Environmental Assessment and Planning Research Group, Technical University of Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(24), 6903;
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 21 November 2019 / Accepted: 2 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
Biodiversity offsets are applied in many countries to compensate for impacts on the environment, but research on regulatory frameworks and implementation enabling effective offsets is lacking. This paper reviews research on biodiversity offsets, providing a framework for the analysis of program design (no net loss goal, uncertainty and ratios, equivalence and accounting, site selection, landscape-scale mitigation planning, timing) and implementation (compliance, adherence to the mitigation hierarchy, leakage and trade-offs, oversight, transparency and monitoring). Some more challenging aspects concern the proper metrics and accounting allowing for program evaluation, as well as the consideration of trade-offs when regulations focus only on the biodiversity aspect of ecosystems. Results can be used to assess offsets anywhere and support the creation of programs that balance development and conservation.
Keywords: biodiversity offsets; no net loss; offset design; offset implementation; compensation; mitigation biodiversity offsets; no net loss; offset design; offset implementation; compensation; mitigation
MDPI and ACS Style

Grimm, M.; Köppel, J. Biodiversity Offset Program Design and Implementation. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6903.

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