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Bio-Inspired Synthetic Ivory as a Sustainable Material for Piano Keys

Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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Sustainability 2019, 11(23), 6538; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11236538
Received: 15 October 2019 / Revised: 12 November 2019 / Accepted: 14 November 2019 / Published: 20 November 2019
Natural ivory is no longer readily or legally available, as it is obtained primarily from elephant tusks, which now enjoy international protection. Ivory, however, is the best material known for piano keys. We present a hydroxylapatite–gelatin biocomposite that is chemically identical to natural ivory but with functional properties optimized to replace it. As this biocomposite is fabricated from abundant materials in an environmentally friendly process and is furthermore biodegradable, it is a sustainable solution for piano keys with the ideal functional properties of natural ivory. View Full-Text
Keywords: ivory; composite materials; material design; biodegradability; piano keys ivory; composite materials; material design; biodegradability; piano keys
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Fischer, D.; Parks, S.C.; Mannhart, J. Bio-Inspired Synthetic Ivory as a Sustainable Material for Piano Keys. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6538.

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