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Open AccessArticle

Carbon Taxation: A Tale of Three Countries

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, GAEL, 38000 Grenoble, France
School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3, Canada
Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 640, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(22), 6280;
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 November 2019 / Published: 8 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of Environmental Taxes and Green Tax Reforms)
Carbon pricing is considered by most economists as a central dimension to any climate policy. It is assumed to bring simple, transparent, and cost-effective means to change investment and consumption behaviors. The most straightforward method is carbon taxation, but its implementation is more complex. This study provides a comparative analysis of carbon taxation in three countries—Sweden, Canada, and France—aimed at drawing lessons for the future of carbon taxation. Comparing the experience of the three countries reveals that carbon taxes, once in place, do have the intended effect. In this sense, they work well. However, the analysis also reveals very different situations in terms of advances, difficulties, and results, which highlights the need to carefully consider the social and political conditions for the acceptance and effective implementation of such economic instruments. Against this background, the comparative analysis yields four main insights that deserve further research from economics and social scientists: the ability to combine pure economic instruments and other regulation or policies and measures; the management of lobbies and vested interests; the identification of a clear strategy for the recycling of the carbon revenues, whether earmarked or not; and finally, the importance of these three dimensions of carbon taxes in the new settings of zero net emission policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: GHG abatement; environmental policy; economic instruments; carbon tax; cost-effectiveness; acceptability GHG abatement; environmental policy; economic instruments; carbon tax; cost-effectiveness; acceptability
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Criqui, P.; Jaccard, M.; Sterner, T. Carbon Taxation: A Tale of Three Countries. Sustainability 2019, 11, 6280.

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