2. Sewage Sludge Production and Management Options: European Situation
3. The Reuse of Biosolids in Agriculture: Comparison Between Legislations in the European Countries
- Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Malta, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Slovenia, and Romania
- Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, and the United Kingdom
3.1. Limit Values for Biosolids
3.2. Limit Values for Soil
- Soil pH: Bulgaria, Slovenia, Romania, Croatia, Latvia, Malta, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Spain defined limit values according to the soil pH, which vary between 5 and 7.5. In some cases, these values can change in relation to the different region/lander (e.g., in Austria and in Belgium).
- Granulometric content: Czech Republic, Lithuania, and Latvia based their prescription on soil granulometric content (sand or clay). Poland adopted another classification (heavy, medium, or light soils) which is not yet defined by the decree .
- Italy uses cation exchange capacity (CEC) in order to characterize soil for land spreading of biosolids.
4. Land Spreading as Main Route: Detailed Survey of European Legislations
4.1. Comparison Between Regulations in EU-15 Member States with Land Spreading as Main Route
4.2. Political Choices in Land Spreading Regulations
5. Italian Scenario: Comparison of Legislation at National and Regional Level
- the “biosolids suitable for spreading”, which must respect the limit values imposed by the current Italian normative;
- the “high quality biosolids”, which requires more stringent limit values (similar to the limits prescribed in Denmark).
- In order to follow the steps of Directive 2008/98/EC, the minimization from the producers (WWTPs managers) is the first step to control the quantitative of sludge.
- In addition to the enhancement of minimization, the reuse of biosolids must be improved in order to cope with nutrient depletion in soils (especially phosphorous).
- Monitoring all discharges is necessary. In fact, the lack of knowledge about the industrial discharges into the public sewer can significantly affect the wastewater treated and the sludge quality.
- Suitable characterization, especially in terms of heavy metals content and stabilization degree, of sludge deriving from WWTPs must be carried out, with the aim of sending the best quality sludge to agricultural land and reducing the environmental impacts.
- Correct planning is very useful to give structure to the policy decisions at different levels (national, regional, etc.) in order to guarantee proper sludge management that provides for the safeguard of environment and public health.
Conflicts of Interest
|AOX||Absorbable organic halogens|
|CEC||Cation exchange capacity|
|LAS||Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates|
|MPCN||Most probable cytopathic number|
|MPN||Most probable number|
|PAH||Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons|
|SOM||Soil organic matter|
|STP||Sludge treatment plant|
|TSS||Total suspended solids|
|VSS||Volatile suspended solids|
|WRRF||Water resources recovery facility|
|WWTP||Wastewater treatment plant|
- Kelessidis, A.; Stasinakis, A.S. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries. Waste Manag. 2012, 32, 1186–1195. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Eurostat. Sewage Sludge Production and Disposal from Urban Wastewater. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/water (accessed on 6 September 2019).
- Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.; Wu, G.; Wu, Q.; Zhang, F.; Niu, Z.; Hu, H.-Y. Characteristics of water quality of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China: Implications for resources utilization and management. J. Clean. Prod. 2016, 131, 1–9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Carnevale Miino, M.; Damiani, S. Treatments for color removal from wastewater: State of the art. J. Environ. Manag. 2019, 236, 727–745. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Carnevale Miino, M.; Baldi, M.; Manzi, S.; Abbà, A.; Bertanza, G. Removal of non-ionic and anionic surfactants from real laundry wastewater by means of a full-scale treatment system. Proc. Saf. Environ. Prot. 2019, 132, 105–115. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EUR-Lex Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment. Off. J. Eur. Communities 1991, 135, 40–52.
- EUR-Lex Commission Directive 98/15/EC of 27 February 1998 amending Council Directive 91/271/EEC with respect to certain requirements established in Annex I thereof. Off. J. Eur. Communities 1998, 67, 29–30.
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Carnevale Miino, M.; Torretta, V. What Advanced Treatments can be Used to Minimize the Production of Sewage Sludge in WWTPs? Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2650. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EUR-Lex Directive EU/2018/851 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 Amending Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste. Off. J. Eur. Communities 2018, 150, 109–140.
- Liu, M.; Wang, C.; Bai, Y.; Xu, G. Effects of sintering temperature on the characteristics of lightweight aggregate made from sewage sludge and river sediment. J. Alloys Compd. 2018, 748, 522–527. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fytili, D.; Zabaniotou, A. Utilization of sewage sludge in EU application of old and new methods—A review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2008, 12, 116–140. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Inglezakis, V.J.; Zorpas, A.A.; Karagiannidis, A.; Samaras, P.; Voukkali, I.; Sklari, S. European Union legislation on sewage sludge management. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 2014, 23, 635–639. [Google Scholar]
- Mininni, G.; Blanch, A.R.; Lucena, F.; Berselli, S. EU policy on sewage sludge utilization and perspectives on new approaches of sludge management. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2015, 22, 7361–7374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- EPA. Biennial Review of 40 CFR Part 503 As Required Under the Clean Water Act Section 405(d)(2)(C)—Reporting Period Biosolids Biennial Review 2015; EPA: Washington, DC, USA, 2015.
- EPA Basic Information about Biosolids. Available online: https://www.epa.gov/biosolids/basic-information-about-biosolids (accessed on 20 May 2019).
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Canato, M.; Abbà, A.; Carnevale Miino, M. Biosolids: What are the different types of reuse? J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 238, 117844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alvarenga, P.; Mourinha, C.; Farto, M.; Santos, T.; Palma, P.; Sengo, J.; Morais, M.-C.; Cunha-Queda, C. Sewage sludge, compost and other representative organic wastes as agricultural soil amendments: Benefits versus limiting factors. Waste Manag. 2015, 40, 44–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aranda, V.; Macci, C.; Peruzzi, E.; Masciandaro, G. Biochemical activity and chemical-structural properties of soil organic matter after 17 years of amendments with olive-mill pomace co-compost. J. Environ. Manag. 2015, 147, 278–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Castán, E.; Satti, P.; González-Polo, M.; Iglesias, M.C.; Mazzarino, M.J. Managing the value of composts as organic amendments and fertilizers in sandy soils. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 2016, 224, 29–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Neczaj, E.; Grosser, A. Circular Economy in Wastewater Treatment Plant–Challenges and Barriers. Proceedings 2018, 2, 614. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jones, R.J.A.; Hiederer, R.; Rusco, E.; Loveland, P.J.; Montanarella, L. The Map of Organic Carbon in Topsoils in Europe: Explanation of Special Publication Ispra 2004 No.72 (S.P.I.04.72); Office for Official Publications of the European Communities: Luxembourg, Luxembourg, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Lal, R. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation. Sustainability 2015, 7, 5875–5895. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. A Policy Framework for Climate and Energy in the Period from 2020 to 2030; EU Commission: Brussels, Belgium, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Forrestal, P.; Richards, K.; Fenton, O. Dairy industry derived wastewater treatment sludge: Generation, type and characterization of nutrients and metals for agricultural reuse. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 230, 1266–1275. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kacprzak, M.; Neczaj, E.; Fijałkowski, K.; Grobelak, A.; Grosser, A.; Worwag, M.; Rorat, A.; Brattebo, H.; Almås, Å.; Singh, B.R. Sewage sludge disposal strategies for sustainable development. Environ. Res. 2017, 156, 39–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Commission. Circular Economy-Implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm (accessed on 13 September 2019).
- Sgroi, M.; Vagliasindi, F.G.A.; Roccaro, P. Feasibility, sustainability and circular economy concepts in water reuse. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sci. Health 2018, 2, 20–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Case, S.D.C.; Jensen, L.S. Nitrogen and phosphorus release from organic wastes and suitability as bio-based fertilizers in a circular economy. Environ. Technol. 2019, 40, 701–715. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cornejo, P.K.; Becker, J.; Pagilla, K.; Mo, W.; Zhang, Q.; Mihelcic, J.R.; Chandran, K.; Sturm, B.; Yeh, D.; Rosso, D. Sustainability metrics for assessing water resource recovery facilities of the future. Water Environ. Res. 2019, 91, 45–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Goh, C.H.; Short, M.D.; Bolan, N.S.; Saint, C.P. Biosolids: The Growing Potential for Use. In Unmaking Waste in Production and Consumption: Towards the Circular Economy; Emerald Publishing Limited: Bingley, UK, 2018; Chapter 4; pp. 67–88. [Google Scholar]
- Peng, S.; Cui, H.; Ji, M. Research on the Sustainable Water Recycling System at Tianjin University’s New Campus. In Unmaking Waste in Production and Consumption: Towards the Circular Economy; Emerald Publishing Limited: Bingley, UK, 2018; Chapter 17; pp. 295–307. [Google Scholar]
- Clarke, B.O.; Smith, S.R. Review of ‘emerging’ organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids. Environ. Int. 2011, 37, 226–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Islam, K.R.; Ahsan, S.; Barik, K.; Aksakal, E.L. Biosolid Impact on Heavy Metal Accumulation and Lability in Soiln Under Alternate-Year No-Till Corn–Soybean Rotation. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2013, 224, 1451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Manzetti, S.; van der Spoel, D. Impact of sludge deposition on biodiversity. Ecotoxicology 2015, 24, 1799–1814. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ashekuzzaman, S.M.; Kwapinska, M.; Leahy, J.J.; Richards, K.; Fenton, O. Novel Use of Dairy Processing Sludge Derived Pyrogenic Char (DPS-PC) to Remove Phosphorus in Discharge Effluents. In Waste and Biomass Valorization; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lleó, T.; Albacete, E.; Barrena, R.; Font, X.; Artola, A.; Sánchez, A. Home and vermicomposting as sustainable options for biowaste management. J. Clean. Prod. 2013, 47, 70–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EUR-Lex Council Directive 86/278/EEC of 12 June 1986 on the Protection of the Environment, and in Particular of the Soil, when Sewage Sludge is Used in Agriculture. Off. J. Eur. Communities 1986, 181, 6–12.
- EUR-Lex Regulation (EC) No 219/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 adapting a number of instruments subject to the procedure referred to in Article 251 of the Treaty to Council Decision 1999/468/EC with regard to the regulatory pro. Off. J. Eur. Communities 2009, 87, 109–154.
- EUR-Lex Decision (EU) 2018/853 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Regulation (EU) No 1257/2013 and Directives 94/63/EC and 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Council Directives 86/278/EEC and 87/217/EEC. Off. J. Eur. Communities 2018, 150, 155–161.
- Sorlini, S.; Collivignarelli, M.C.; Castagnola, F.; Crotti, B.M.; Raboni, M. Methodological approach for the optimization of drinking water treatment plants’ operation: A case study. Water Sci. Technol. 2015, 71, 597–604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Torretta, V. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town. Waste Manag. 2013, 33, 1057–1063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Foladori, P.; Andreottola, G.; Ziglio, G. Sludge Reduction Technologies in Wastewater Treatment plants; IWA Publishing: London, UK, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Coma, M.; Rovira, S.; Canals, J.; Colprim, J. Integrated side-stream reactor for biological nutrient removal and minimization of sludge production. Water Sci. Technol. 2015, 71, 1056–1064. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Castagnola, F.; Sordi, M.; Bertanza, G. Treatment of sewage sludge in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR) with alternate aeration cycles. J. Environ. Manag. 2015, 162, 132–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Bertanza, G. Why use a thermophilic aerobic membrane reactor for the treatment of industrial wastewater/liquid waste? Environ. Technol. 2015, 36, 2115–2124. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Castagnola, F.; Bertanza, G. Minimization of municipal sewage sludge by means of a thermophilic membrane bioreactor with intermittent aeration. J. Clean. Prod. 2017, 143, 369–376. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Castagnola, F.; Sordi, M.; Bertanza, G. Sewage sludge treatment in a thermophilic membrane reactor (TMR): Factors affecting foam formation. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2017, 24, 2316–2325. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eurostat. Population Connected to Urban Wastewater Collecting and Treatment Systems, by Treatment Level. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/environment/water (accessed on 20 October 2019).
- European Commission. Environmental, Economic and Social Impacts of the Use of Sewage Sludge on Land; Final Report, Part III: Project Interim Reports; Milieu Ltd.: Brussels, Belgium, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- European Commission. Disposal and Recycling Routes for Sewage Sludge Part 2—Regulatory Report. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/waste/sludge/pdf/sludge_disposal2.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2019).
- European Commission. Working Document on Sludge, 3; European Water Association: Brussels, Belgium, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Bestetti, M.; Crotti, B.M.; Carnevale Miino, M. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel and Copper from Acid Pickling Solutions Used to Treat Metal Surfaces. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2019, 230, 101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Benigna, I. The reuse of biosolids on agricultural land: Critical issues and perspective. Water Environ. Res. 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Walter, I.; Martínez, F.; Cala, V. Heavy metal speciation and phytotoxic effects of three representative sewage sludges for agricultural uses. Environ. Pollut. 2006, 139, 507–514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Singh, R.P.; Agrawal, M. Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Manag. 2008, 28, 347–358. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- European Commission. Disposal and Recycling Routes for Sewage Sludge Part 1—Sludge Use Acceptance Report. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/waste/sludge/pdf/sludge_disposal1.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2019).
- Hudcová, H.; Vymazal, J.; Rozkošný, M. Present restrictions of sewage sludge application in agriculture within the European Union. Soil Water Res. 2019, 14, 104–120. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Government of Germany. Sewage Sludge Regulation of 15 April 1992. Available online: https://www.bafg.de/Baggergut/DE/04_Richtlinien/klaerschlammverordnung.pdf?__blob=publicationFile (accessed on 5 September 2019). (In German)
- Government of Germany. Ordinance on the Reorganization of Sewage Sludge Utilization. Available online: https://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&start=%2F%2F%2A%5B%40attr_id=%27bgbl117s3465.pdf%27%5D#__bgbl__%2F%2F*%5B%40attr_id%3D%27bgbl117s3465.pdf%27%5D__1562866673861 (accessed on 5 September 2019). (In German)
- Government of UK. Guidance of 23 May 2018: “Sewage Sludge on Farmland: Code of Practice for England, Wales and Northern Ireland”. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/sewage-sludge-in-agriculture-code-of-practice/sewage-sludge-in-agriculture-code-of-practice-for-england-wales-and-northern-ireland (accessed on 5 September 2019).
- Government of Spain. Royal Decree 1310/1990, of 29 October, Regulating the Use of Sludge from Depuration in the Agricultural Sector. Available online: https://www.boe.es/diario_boe/txt.php?id=BOE-A-1990-26490 (accessed on 6 September 2019). (In Spanish)
- Government of France. Order of 8 January 1998 Laying Down the Technical Requirements for Sludge Spreading on Agricultural Soils under Decree No. 97-1133 of 8 December 1997 on the Spreading of Sludge from Waste Water Treatment. Available online: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000570287 (accessed on 6 September 2019). (In French)
- Government of Italy. Conversion into Law, with Amendments, of the Decree-Law 28 September 2018, n. 109, Containing Urgent Provisions for the City of Genoa, the Security of the National Infrastructure and Transport Network, the 2016 and 2017 Seismic Events, Work and other Emer. Available online: https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2018/11/19/18G00157/sg (accessed on 5 September 2019).
- Government of Italy. Implementation of Directive 86/278/EEC on the Protection of the Environment, and in Particular of the Soil, when Sewage Sludge is Used in Agriculture. Available online: https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/1992/02/15/092G0139/sg (accessed on 4 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Government of Netherlands. Decision of 30 January 1998 Laying Down Rules on the Quality and the Placing on the Market of other Organic Fertilizers (Decision Quality and Use of other Organic Fertilizers). Available online: https://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0009360/2006-01-01 (accessed on 6 September 2019). (In Dutch)
- Lander of Carinthia Ordination n.74 of 15/12/2000 on the Application of Treated Sewage Sludge, Biowaste and Green Waste to Land-Based Soil—Carinthia Sewage Sludge and Compost Regulation. Available online: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=LrK&Gesetzesnummer=20000166 (accessed on 4 September 2019). (In German)
- Lander of Lower Austria. Consolidated Landrecht Lower Austria: Entire legislation for Sewage Sludge Ordinance, Version of 11.07.2019. Available online: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=LrNO&Gesetzesnummer=20001009 (accessed on 3 September 2019). (In German)
- Lander of Styria. Ordinance of the Steiemark Provincial Government of 8 October 2007, on the Application of Sewage Sludge to Agricultural Soils. Available online: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/GeltendeFassung.wxe?Abfrage=LrStmk&Gesetzesnummer=20000867 (accessed on 2 September 2019). (In German)
- Lander of Voralberg. Ordinance of the National Government on the Application of Sewage Sludge Published on 9 October 1997. Available online: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Lgbl/LGBL_VO_19971009_75/LGBL_VO_19971009_75.pdf (accessed on 7 September 2019). (In German)
- Government of Sweden. Notice of Protection of the Environment, in Particular the Soil, When Sewage Sludge Is Used in Agriculture; Decided on 30 May 1994. Available online: https://www.naturvardsverket.se/Documents/foreskrifter/nfs1994/snfs1994-02k.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2019). (In Swedish)
- Government of Portugal. Law Decree No. 276/2009 of 2 October on the Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge. Available online: https://dre.pt/pesquisa/-/search/490974/details/maximized (accessed on 6 September 2019). (In Portuguese)
- Government of Finland. Council of State Decision on Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture of December 5, 1994. 1994. Available online: https://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/1994/19940282 (accessed on 7 September 2019). (In Finnish)
- Government of Denmark. Executive Order no. 49 of 20 January 2000 on Supervision of Waste Water Sludge for Agricultural Purposes. Available online: https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=6919 (accessed on 11 September 2019). (In Danish)
- Government of Denmark. Order no. 1001 of 27/06/2018 on the Use of Waste for Agricultural Purposes. Available online: https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=202047 (accessed on 11 September 2019). (In Danish)
- Government of Ireland. S.I. No. 148/1998—Waste Management (Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture) Regulations. 1998. Available online: http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/eli/1998/si/148/made/en/print (accessed on 11 September 2019).
- Government of Greece. Methods, Conditions and Restrictions for the Use in Agriculture of Sludge from Domestic and Urban Effluent Treatment. Ministerial Decision: 80568/4225/91. Available online: http://www.elinyae.gr/el/lib_file_upload/641b_91.1149837816400.pdf (accessed on 11 September 2019). (In Greek)
- Walloon Region. Order of the Walloon Government of 12 January 1995 Regulating the Use of Sewage Sludge or Sludge from Sludge Treatment Centers in Septic Tanks. Available online: http://environnement.wallonie.be/legis/solsoussol/sol002.htm (accessed on 11 September 2019). (In French).
- Flemish Region. Decision of the Flemish Government Establishing the Flemish Regulation Concerning the Sustainable Management of Material Cycles and Waste. Available online: https://navigator.emis.vito.be/mijn-navigator?woId=43992 (accessed on 11 September 2019). (In Dutch)
- Government of Luxembourg. Grand-Ducal Regulation of 23 December 2014 Relating to Sewage Sludge. Available online: http://data.legilux.public.lu/file/eli-etat-leg-memorial-2015-2-fr-pdf.pdf (accessed on 3 September 2019). (In French)
- Government of Poland. Ordinance of the Minister of the Environment of 25 February 2015 on Municipal Sewage Sludge. Available online: http://prawo.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20150000257/O/D20150257.pdf (accessed on 3 September 2019). (In Polish)
- Government of Hungary. Government Decree on the Rules of Agricultural Use and Treatment of Sewage and Sewage Sludge. 50/2001 (IV.3). Available online: https://net.jogtar.hu/jogszabaly?docid=A0100050.KOR (accessed on 2 September 2019). (In Hungarian)
- Government of the Czech Republic. Decree of the Ministry of the Environment No. 382/2001, on the Conditions of Use of Treated Sludge on Agricultural Land. Available online: https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2001-382 (accessed on 2 September 2019). (In Czech)
- Government of the Czech Republic. Declaration 437/2016 on the Conditions of Use of Treated sludge on Agricultural Land and Amending Decree No. 383/2001. Available online: https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2016-437 (accessed on 2 September 2019). (In Czech)
- Government of Romania. Ordinance No. 344/708 of 16 August 2004 for Approval of Technical Norms on Environmental Protection and Especially of Soils, when Using Sewage Sludge in Agriculture. Available online: http://www.adideseuribn.ro/legislatie/Ordin 344_2004.pdf (accessed on 3 September 2019). (In Romanian)
- Government of Lithuania. Declaration n.349 Concerning the Approval of the Normative Document Land 20-2005 “Requirements for the Use of Waste Dumping and Recycling”. Available online: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/TAIS.143603/WdiYOWmTAy (accessed on 3 September 2019). (In Lithuanian)
- Government of Slovakia. Act no. 188/2003 on Application of Sludge and Bottom Sediments to Soil and on Amendment of Act no. 223/2001 on Waste and Amendments to Certain Acts as Amended. Available online: https://www.zakonypreludi.sk/zz/2003-188 (accessed on 10 September 2019). (In Slovak)
- Government of Bulgaria. Ordinance on the Procedure and the Way of Utilization of Sludge from the Treatment of Waste Waters through Their Use in Agriculture. Adopted by Decree of the Council of Ministers No 201 of 4.08.2016, Promulgated, SG, no. 63 of 12.08.2016. Available online: http://eea.government.bg/bg/legislation/waste/Naredba_utaiki_26.10.16.pdf. (accessed on 10 September 2019). (In Bulgarian)
- Government of Estonia. Regulations No. 78 of 30 December 2002, Entry into Force on 01/01/2016, on Requirements for Use of Sewage Sludge in Agriculture, Greenery and Re-cultivation. Available online: https://www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/761407 (accessed on 10 September 2019). (In Estonian)
- Government of Cyprus. Control of Water Pollution (Use of Sludge) Regulations of 2002, PI. 517/2002. Available online: http://www.cylaw.org/KDP/data/2002_1_517.pdf (accessed on 2 September 2019). (In Greek)
- Government of Latvia. Cabinet of Ministers Regulation No. 362 of 2 May 2006 on Regulations on the Use of Sewage Sludge and Its Compost, Monitoring and Control. Available online: https://likumi.lv/doc.php?id=134653 (accessed on 8 September 2019). (In Latvian)
- Government of Slovenia. Decree No. 62 of 20 June 2008 on the Use of Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Agriculture. Available online: http://www.pisrs.si/Pis.web/pregledPredpisa?id=URED4880 (accessed on 7 September 2019). (In Slovenian)
- Government of Malta. Legal Notice 212 of 28 June 2002 on Sludge (Use in Agriculture) Regulations. Available online: http://www.justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=11496&l=1 (accessed on 8 September 2019).
- Government of Croatia. Ordinance No. 38 of 2 April 2008 on Sludge Management from Sewage Treatment Plants when Sludge is Used in Agriculture. Available online: http://www.poslovni-savjetnik.com/propisi/pravilnik-o-gospodarenju-muljem-iz-uredaja-za-prociscavanje-otpadnih-voda-kada-se-mulj (accessed on 2 September 2019). (In Croatian)
- PURE. Good Practices in Sludge Management. Available online: http://www.purebalticsea.eu/index.php/gpsm:good_practices (accessed on 9 September 2019).
- Province of Pavia. The Soil of the Province of Pavia. Available online: https://www.provincia.pv.it/attachments/article/1690/Il%20suolo%20della%20Provincia%20di%20Pavia.pdf (accessed on 17 October 2019). (In Italian)
- Chang, A.C.; Hinesly, T.D.; Bates, T.E.; Poner, H.E.; Dowdy, R.H.; Ryan, J.A. Effects of Long-Term Sludge Application on Accumulation of Trace Elements By Crops. In Land Application of Sludge; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018; pp. 53–66. [Google Scholar]
- Somtners, L.; Van Volk, V.; Giordano, P.M.; Sopper, W.E.; Bastían, R. Effects of Soil Properties on Accumulation of Trace Elements By Crops. In Land Application of Sludge; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018; pp. 5–24. [Google Scholar]
- EUR-Lex Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. Off. J. Eur. Communities 1991, 375, 1–8.
- EUR-Lex Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 September 2003 adapting to Council Decision 1999/468/EC the provisions relating to committees which assist the Commission in the exercise of its implementing powers laid down. Off. J. Eur. Communities 2003, 284, 1–53.
- EUR-Lex Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2008 adapting a number of instruments subject to the procedure laid down in Article 251 of the Treaty to Council Decision 1999/468/EC, with regard to the regulatory p. Off. J. Eur. Communities 2008, 311, 1–54.
- Napoli, M.; Marta, A.D.; Zanchi, C.A.; Orlandini, S. Assessment of soil and nutrient losses by runoff under different soil management practices in an Italian hilly vineyard. Soil Tillage Res. 2017, 168, 71–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pardini, G.; Gispert, M.; Dunjo, G. Runoff erosion and nutrient depletion in five Mediterranean soils of NE Spain under different land use. Sci. Total Environ. 2003, 309, 213–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Torri, S.I.; CorrÊa, R.S.; Renella, G. Biosolid Application to Agricultural Land—A Contribution to Global Phosphorus Recycle: A Review. Pedosphere 2017, 27, 1–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Evans, T.D. Biosolids in Europe. In Proceedings of the 26th WEF Residuals & Biosolids Conference, Raleigh, NC, USA, 25–28 March 2012; pp. 1–10. [Google Scholar]
- Rashid, M.M.; Kattou’a, M.G.; Al-Khatib, I.A.; Sato, C. Farmers’ attitude toward treated sludge use in the villages of West Bank, Palestine. Environ. Monit. Assess. 2017, 189, 353. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Amajirionwu, M.; Connaughton, N.; McCann, B.; Moles, R.; Bartlett, J.; O’Regan, B. Indicators for managing biosolids in Ireland. J. Environ. Manag. 2008, 88, 1361–1372. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schulte, R.P.O.; Creamer, R.E.; Donnellan, T.; Farrelly, N.; Fealy, R.; O’Donoghue, C.; O’hUallachain, D. Functional land management: A framework for managing soil-based ecosystem services for the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Environ. Sci. Policy 2014, 38, 45–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mininni, G.; Sagnotti, G. Sludge production and utilization in Italy. In Proceedings of the Wastewater and Biosolids Treatment and Reuse: Bridging Modeling and Experimental Studies, Otranto, Italy, 8–14 June 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Lombardy Region. Regional Decree n. 6665 of 14 May 2019. Available online: https://www.regione.lombardia.it/wps/wcm/connect/19df87f4-0ac9-4fac-b171-084e37a5bc51/D.d.u.o.+6665_2019.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-19df87f4-0ac9-4fac-b171-084e37a5bc51-mH4MG8K (accessed on 9 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Veneto Region. Law n. 130 of 11/15/2018, Article 41: Urgent Provisions on the Management of Sewage Sludge that Integrate the Characteristics of the Sludge that can be Used in Agriculture. Available online: http://www.arpa.veneto.it/temi-ambientali/suolo/file-e-allegati/normativa/fanghi-di-depurazione-utilizzo-in-agricoltura/Legge 130-2018 art_41.pdf/view (accessed on 4 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Emilia-Romagna Region. Deliberation of the Regional Council 4 March 2019, n. 326: Urgent Provisions on the Agronomic Use of Sewage Sludge. Available online: http://bur.regione.emilia-romagna.it/dettaglio-inserzione?i=b5f9fa6aa4d146618e11832370e056e7 (accessed on 5 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Collivignarelli, M.C.; Abbà, A.; Padovani, S.; Frascarolo, M.; Sciunnach, D.; Turconi, M.; Orlando, M. Recovery of sewage sludge on agricultural land in Lombardy: Current issues and regulatory scenarios. Environ. Eng. Manag. J. 2015, 14, 1477–1486. [Google Scholar]
- Lombardy Region. Regional Decree n. X/2031/2014, Regional Regulations for the Treatment and Use, for the Benefits of Agriculture, of Sewage Sludge from Civil and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants. Available online: https://www.regione.lombardia.it/wps/wcm/connect/e81d0f54-bedf-4918-886f-ad4db4c04911/D.g.r.+2031_2014.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=ROOTWORKSPACE-e81d0f54-bedf-4918-886f-ad4db4c04911-mH4K-bC (accessed on 9 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Veneto Region. Deliberation of the Regional n. 2241/2005, Directive B—Technical Regulations Regarding the Use in Agriculture of Sewage Sludge and other Sludge Non-toxic and Harmful, with Agronomic Usefulness. Available online: http://www.arpa.veneto.it/temi-ambientali/suolo/file-e-allegati/normativa/fanghi-di-depurazione-utilizzo-in-agricoltura/DGRV2241_05_D49.pdf (accessed on 4 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Emilia-Romagna Region. Deliberation of the Regional n. 285/2005, Regional Regulations Concerning the Management and the Authorization for Sewage Sludge Use in Agriculture. Available online: http://ambiente.regione.emilia-romagna.it/it/acque/approfondimenti/normativa/DGR_285_2005.pdf (accessed on 5 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Government of Italy. Legislative Decree n. 75 of April 29, 2010—Reorganization and Revision of the Regulation on Fertilizers, Pursuant to Article 13 of Law no. 88. of 7 July 2009. Available online: https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/eli/id/2010/05/26/010G0096/sg (accessed on 13 September 2019). (In Italian)
- Government of Italy. Ministerial Decree of June 28, 2016—Amendments to Annexes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 of Legislative Decree No. 75 of April 29, 2010 Containing: Reorganization and Revision of the Discipline on Fertilizers, in Accordance with Article 13 of the Law n. 88 of 7 July. Available online: https://www.gazzettaufficiale.it/atto/serie_generale/caricaDettaglioAtto/originario?atto.dataPubblicazioneGazzetta=2016-08-12&atto.codiceRedazionale=16A05930&elenco30giorni=false (accessed on 13 September 2019).
|Legislation||Heavy Metals||Organic Compounds||References|
|France||20||1000||1000||10||200||800||3000||-||0.8 l||-||-||-||-||2–5 p||-|||
|Sweden c||0.75||40||300||1.5||25||25||600||-||0.4 l||-||-||-||50||3 f||-|||
|Denmark||0.8||100||1000||0.8||30||120||4000||25||0.2 l||-||1300||50||10||3 f||-||[73,74]|
|Belgium b||6–10||100–150||600–800||1–1.6||100||300–500||1500–2000||20–150||0.6–0.8 l||-||-||-||-||3–20||20||[77,78]|
|Luxembourg d||2.5||100||700||1.6||80||200||3000||-||0.2 m||-||-||-||-||20 i||20|||
|Hungary||10||1000||1000||10||200||750||2500||75||1 l||-||-||-||-||10 i||-|||
|Czech Republic||5||200||500||4||100||200||2500||30||0.6 l||500||-||-||-||10 j||-||[82,83]|
|Romania||10||500||500||5||100||300||2000||10||0.8 l||500||-||-||-||5 k||-|||
|Slovakia||10||1000||1000||10||300||750||2500||20||0.8 l||500||-||-||-||6 h||-|||
|Legislation||Types of Pathogens||Limit||Units of Measure (u.m.)||References|
|Escherichia Coli||100||CFU gDM−1|
|Helminths eggs||Absent||eggs kgDM−1|
|Salmonella||No occurrence in 1 g|
|Salmonella||Absent||MPN 20−1 gWW−1|||
|Escherichia Coli||100||MPN gWW−1|
|Clostridium perfringens||300||MPN gWW−1|
|Viable eggs of helminths||1||eggs kgDM−1|
|Thermotolerant coliforms||<103||CFU gDM−1|
|Faecal streptococci||<100 g−1|
|Salmonella||Not detected in 25 g|||
|Escherichia Coli||1000||CFU g−1|
|Helminths eggs||3||eggs 10−1gDM−1|
|Escherichia Coli||1000||CFU g−1|||
|Helminths eggs||0||Units kg−1|
|Clostridium perfringens||100,000||CFU g−1|
|Helminths eggs||No eggs of worm likely to be contagious|
|Salmonella||Absent||CFU 50−1 gWW−1|||
|Salmonella||Biosolids cannot be used in agriculture if it contains salmonella in 100 gDM|||
|Helminths eggs||0||eggs kgDM−1|
|Salmonella||No occurrence in 50 g|||
|Escherichia Coli||1000||CFU g−1|
|Thermotolerant coliforms||2 × 106||CFU gDM−1|||
|Fecal streptococci||2 × 106||CFU gDM−1|
|Czech Republic 4||0.4–0.5||55–90||45–60||0.3||45–50||55–60||105–120||15–20||[82,83]|
|Maximum quantitative (tDM ha−1 year−1)||-||10||-||-||1.7||2||5||6||-||-|
|Obligations for treatment||Permit use of untreated sludge under certain conditions||Stabilization, composting or pasteurization||Digestion or lime stabilization||Permit use of untreated sludge under certain conditions||Prohibition of use of untreated sludge||Permit use of untreated sludge under certain conditions||Prohibition of use of untreated sludge||Prohibition of use of untreated sludge||Prohibition of use of untreated sludge||Permit use of untreated sludge under certain conditions|
|Grazing and pastureland||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P|
|Vegetables and fruits crops||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P||P|
|Frozen or snow-covered ground||NP||NP||NP||P||NP||NP||NP||NP||NP||NP|
|Wet land, or after heavy rain||NP||NP||NP||P||NP||NP||P||P||NP||NP|
|GW protection areas||NP||P||NP||P||P||NP||NP||P||NP||NP|
|Near surface water||NP||P||NP||P||P||NP||NP||P||NP||NP|
|Additional restriction||On soil where sludge is likely to cause significant nuisances or unsanitary conditions||Not regularly worked out land in areas close to human settlements and public buildings||Soils of pH <5, and CEC <8 meq 100−1 g−1||In areas close to individual houses and human settlements||Soils of pH <5|
|Parameter.||Unit of Measure (u.m.)||Italy||Lombardy||Veneto||Emilia Romagna|
|Legislative Decree n.99/1992 and n. 130/2018||DGR n. X/2031/2014 and d.d.u.o. 6665/2019||DGR n. 2241/2005 and n. 130/2018||DGR n. 285/2005 and n. 326/2019|
|Heavy metals||As||mg kgDM−1||<20||≤10||≤20||<20||<20|
|Cr (VI)||mg kgDM−1||<2||<2||<2||<2|
|Chemical/physical parameters||VSS TSS−1||%||-||<65||<60||-||-|
|pH||-||-||5.5 < pH ≤ 11||-||>5.5|
|Agronomic parameters||Organic carbon||% DM||>20||>20||>20||>20|
|Total nitrogen||% DM||>1.5||>1.5||>1.5||>1.5|
|Total phosphorus||% DM||>0.4||>0.4||>0.4||>0.4|
|Organic micropollutants||PAH||mg kgDM−1||≤6||<6||≤6||≤6|
|Hydrocarbon (C10-C40)||mg kgDM−1||-||<10,000||-||-|
|Hydrocarbon (C10-C40)||mg kgWW−1||<1000||<1000||≤1000||≤1000|
|Microbiological parameters||Salmonella||MPN gDM−1||<1000||<100||<1000||≤1000|
|Faecal Coliforms||MPN gDM−1||-||<10,000||-||-|
|Maximum quantitative (based on pH and CEC values)||tDM ha−1 year−1 for maximum quantitative meg 100−1 g−1 for CEC||2.5||pH < 6;|
CEC < 15
|2.5||pH < 6;|
CEC ≤ 15
|2.5||5 < pH < 7.5;|
CEC < 15
|2.5||5 < pH < 6;|
CEC ≤ 15
|3.7||5 < pH < 6;|
CEC > 15
|2.5||5 < pH < 6;|
CEC > 15
|3.7||5 < pH < 6;|
CEC > 15
|5||6 < pH < 7.5;|
CEC > 15
|3.7||6 < pH < 7.5;|
CEC ≤ 15
|5||6 < pH < 7.5;|
CEC > 15
|3.7||6 < pH < 7;|
CEC ≤ 15
|5||6 < pH < 7.5;|
CEC > 15
|5||pH > 7.5;|
CEC < 15
|5||6 < pH < 7.5;|
CEC > 15
|7.5||pH > 7.5||7.5||pH > 7.5||7.5||pH > 7.5;|
CEC > 15
|5||pH > 7.5;|
CEC ≤ 15
|7.5||pH > 7.5;|
CEC > 15
|Soil||Grazing and pastureland||P||P||P||P|
|Vegetables and fruits crops||P||P||P||P|
|Frozen or snow-covered ground||NP||P||P||P|
|Wet land, or after heavy rain||P||P||P||P|
|Groundwater protection areas||NP||P||P||P|
|Near surface water||NP||P||P||P|
|Parameter||Unit of Measure (u.m.)||D.Lgs. 75/2010 and M.D. 28 June 2016||DGR n. X/2031/2014 and d.d.u.o. 6665/2019|
|Heavy metals||Pb||mg kgDM−1||140||750||250|
|Microbiological parameters||Salmonella||MPN gDM−1||Absence in 25 g of sample as it is; n (1) = 5; c (2) = 0; m (3) = 0; m (4) = 0||100||100|
|E. Coli||MPN gDM−1||In 1 g of sample as it is.; n (1) = 5; c (2) = 1; m (3) = 1000 CFU g−1; m (4) = 5000 CFU g−1||-||-|
|Total Coliforms||MPN gDM−1||-||<10,000||<10,000|
|Minimum titulus||CaO||-||15% on DM||-||-|
|SO3||-||10% on DM||-||-|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).