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Article

Environmental Criteria for Assessing the Competitiveness of Public Tenders with the Replacement of Large-Scale LEDs in the Outdoor Lighting of Cities as a Key Element for Sustainable Development: Case Study Applied with PROMETHEE Methodology

1
Department of Graphic Engineering, Design and Projects, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
2
Department of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, Universidad de Jaén, 23071 Jaen, Spain
3
Instituto Politecnico, I.P.P Portalegre, 7300-110 Portalegre, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(21), 5982; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215982
Received: 13 October 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 28 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lighting at the Frontiers of Sustainable Development)
The technological change to LEDs is an unstoppable reality which, little by little, is becoming increasingly important in terms of the lighting inside and outside our homes. The exterior lighting of our cities is moving decisively and clearly towards the incorporation of this technology in urban spaces. The energy efficiency, light quality, and economic benefits of LED technology are an unquestionable reality. This is causing public administration projects involving large-scale switches to LEDs to be promoted and financed; however, it is beginning to be observed that the commitment to the policies decided by this technology should take into account some environmental aspects which have not been studied to date. The environmental impact of the substitutions is caused by the need to valorize the replaced luminaires. Until now, most have been stored without the possibility of use, reuse, or recovery. The environmental impact produced in the manufacture of LED luminaires that replace the old sodium vapor (VSAP) or metal halide (MH) discharge lamps must also be considered. In addition, in the administrative clauses specifications that govern the public tenders, it is observed that the fundamental environmental aspects both of recycling the old lamps, and of the life cycle analysis (LCA) of the luminaires that are replacing them, have not been contemplated or valued with sufficient weight. In addition, there are very few public substitution contests in which environmental criteria are rewarded or valued in an important way. This work intends to summarize a methodological proposal using the techniques of multiple decision-making criteria for the selection of bidding companies for public outdoor lighting competitions. We propose the use of the PROMETHEE method multi-criteria analysis for the application of the most commonly used criteria for the luminaire LED selection process, including an environmental impact assessment with LCA techniques, and propose this as a case or model guide in the public contests of cities. A model of the bidding conditions that addresses and assesses the environmental aspects which are absolutely key to sustainable development is supported by the ecological criteria of the circular economy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Life cycle assessment LCA; LED luminaires; lighting public tender; streetlight waste; recycling waste; environmental criteria; decision tool; PROMETHEE; lighting pollution; circular economy Life cycle assessment LCA; LED luminaires; lighting public tender; streetlight waste; recycling waste; environmental criteria; decision tool; PROMETHEE; lighting pollution; circular economy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hermoso-Orzáez, M.J.; Lozano-Miralles, J.A.; Lopez-Garcia, R.; Brito, P. Environmental Criteria for Assessing the Competitiveness of Public Tenders with the Replacement of Large-Scale LEDs in the Outdoor Lighting of Cities as a Key Element for Sustainable Development: Case Study Applied with PROMETHEE Methodology. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5982. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215982

AMA Style

Hermoso-Orzáez MJ, Lozano-Miralles JA, Lopez-Garcia R, Brito P. Environmental Criteria for Assessing the Competitiveness of Public Tenders with the Replacement of Large-Scale LEDs in the Outdoor Lighting of Cities as a Key Element for Sustainable Development: Case Study Applied with PROMETHEE Methodology. Sustainability. 2019; 11(21):5982. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215982

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hermoso-Orzáez, Manuel J., José A. Lozano-Miralles, Rafael Lopez-Garcia, and Paulo Brito. 2019. "Environmental Criteria for Assessing the Competitiveness of Public Tenders with the Replacement of Large-Scale LEDs in the Outdoor Lighting of Cities as a Key Element for Sustainable Development: Case Study Applied with PROMETHEE Methodology" Sustainability 11, no. 21: 5982. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11215982

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