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A Review of Nitrogen Removal for Urban Stormwater Runoff in Bioretention System

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Bahri, Khartoum-North 12217, Khartoum, Sudan
River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC), Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang, Malaysia
Institute of Sustainable Energy (ISE), Universiti Tenaga National, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(19), 5415;
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 30 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Sustainability and Applications)
One of the best management practices (BMPs) for stormwater quality and quantity control is a bioretention system. The removal efficiency of different pollutants under this system is generally satisfactory, except for nitrogen which is deficient in certain bioretention systems. Nitrogen has a complex biogeochemical cycle, and thus the removal processes of nitrogen are typically slower than other pollutants. This study summarizes recent studies that have focused on nitrogen removal for urban stormwater runoff and discusses the latest advances in bioretention systems. The performance, influencing factors, and design enhancements are comprehensively reviewed in this paper. The review of current literature reveals that a bioretention system shows great promise due to its ability to remove nitrogen from stormwater runoff. Combining nitrification and denitrification zones with the addition of a carbon source and selecting different plant species promote nitrogen removal. Nevertheless, more studies on nitrogen transformations in a bioretention system and the relationships between different design factors need to be undertaken. View Full-Text
Keywords: stormwater runoff; bioretention; nitrogen removal; leaching stormwater runoff; bioretention; nitrogen removal; leaching
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MDPI and ACS Style

Osman, M.; Wan Yusof, K.; Takaijudin, H.; Goh, H.W.; Abdul Malek, M.; Azizan, N.A.; Ab. Ghani, A.; Sa’id Abdurrasheed, A. A Review of Nitrogen Removal for Urban Stormwater Runoff in Bioretention System. Sustainability 2019, 11, 5415.

AMA Style

Osman M, Wan Yusof K, Takaijudin H, Goh HW, Abdul Malek M, Azizan NA, Ab. Ghani A, Sa’id Abdurrasheed A. A Review of Nitrogen Removal for Urban Stormwater Runoff in Bioretention System. Sustainability. 2019; 11(19):5415.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Osman, Manal, Khamaruzaman Wan Yusof, Husna Takaijudin, Hui W. Goh, Marlinda Abdul Malek, Nor A. Azizan, Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, and Abdurrasheed Sa’id Abdurrasheed. 2019. "A Review of Nitrogen Removal for Urban Stormwater Runoff in Bioretention System" Sustainability 11, no. 19: 5415.

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