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Open AccessArticle

Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions

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School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
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Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Private Mail Bag, University Post Office, KNUST, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
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Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
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Menzies Centre for Health Policy, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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Institute for Poverty, Land and Agrarian Studies, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
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Département de Nutrition, Faculté de Médecine, Universi té de Montréal, PO Box 6128, Centre-ville Station Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
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Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness & Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi 0023351, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Sustainability 2019, 11(14), 3924; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143924
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 4 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Food Deserts: Perspectives from the Global South)
In sub-Saharan Africa, urbanisation and food systems change contribute to rapid dietary transitions promoting obesity. It is unclear to what extent these changes are mediated by neighbourhood food environments or other factors. This paper correlates neighbourhood food provision with household consumption and poverty in Khayelitsha, South Africa and Ahodwo, Ghana. Georeferenced survey data of food consumption and provision were classified by obesity risk and protection. Outlets were mapped, and density and distribution correlated with risk classes. In Khayelitsha, 71% of households exceeded dietary obesity risk thresholds while 16% consumed protective diets. Obesogenic profiles were less (26%) and protective more prevalent (23%) in Ahodwo despite greater income poverty in Khayelitsha. Here, income-deprived households consumed significantly (p < 0.005) less obesogenic and protective diets. Small informal food outlets dominated numerically but supermarkets were key household food sources in Khayelitsha. Although density of food provision in Ahodwo was higher (76/km2), Khayelitsha outlets (61/km2) provided greater access to obesogenic (57% Khayelitsha; 39% Ahodwo) and protective (43% Khayelitsha; 16% Ahodwo) foods. Consumption and provision profiles correlate more strongly in Ahodwo than Khayelitsha (rKhayelitsha = 0.624; rAhodwo = 0.862). Higher obesogenic food consumption in Khayelitsha suggests that risky food environments and poverty together promote obesogenic diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; food environments; urban; mapping; nutrition; South Africa; Ghana; governance; supermarkets; ultra-processed obesity; food environments; urban; mapping; nutrition; South Africa; Ghana; governance; supermarkets; ultra-processed
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Kroll, F.; Swart, E.C.; Annan, R.A.; Thow, A.M.; Neves, D.; Apprey, C.; Aduku, L.N.E.; Agyapong, N.A.F.; Moubarac, J.-C.; Toit, A.; Aidoo, R.; Sanders, D. Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3924.

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