Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions
1.1. Obesogenic Food
1.2. Changing Food Retail Environments
1.3. Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana
1.4. Framing Food Environments as Objects of Governance
1.5. Research Question
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Sites, Instruments and Analysis
2.3. Food Outlet Typology
2.4. Obesogenic Food Consumption and Provision Indices
3.1. Household Food Environment
3.2. Neighbourhood Food Environment
3.3. Mapping Obesogenic Food Provision and Consumption
3.3.1. Food Provision and Consumption—Ahodwo
3.3.2. Food Provision and Consumption—Khayelitsha
4.2. Key Insights
4.3. Implications for Food Environment Research Methods
4.4. Implications for the Dietary Transition and Non-Communicable Disease
4.5. Implications for Food Environments Theory
4.6. Implications for Planning, Governance and Policy
Conflicts of Interest
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|Outlet Type||Outlet Detail|
|Formal retailer||Wholesaler/Distributor; Supermarket; General dealer|
|Small or informal shop||Small shop/Convenience store/Spaza (dedicated shop with a sign); House-shop (informal shop attached to or part of a home; no sign; not dedicated to food retail only); Container shop|
|Stall or mobile trader||Fixed municipal stall (with shelter and display); Permanent stall (fixed shelter, table and display shelves which stays in place after trading hours); Temporary stall (boxes with board; removable stall and shelter; trailer with wheels); Mobile trader (trolley, wheelbarrow; carry-tray, basket or buckets); Bakkie (pick-up truck) trader or trike.|
|Formal food service||Formal restaurant; Corporate fast food shop; Independent take-away/fast-food.|
|Informal food service||Informal restaurant; Informal take-away or grill.|
|Household Consumption Risk Class||Risky||Protective|
|Description||Ultra-processed, processed and fried foods and ingredients||Minimally-processed, plant-based foods|
|Cutoff frequency||2–4 times a week or more||5 times a week or more|
|Cutoff number of foods||4||3|
|Food types||Processed Meat; Instant Noodles; Salty snacks; Sugary drinks; Ready-to-eat foods; Fast food; Fried potatoes/hot chips; Processed Dairy; Breakfast cereals; Sweets; Confectionery; Sugar; Vetkoek/Dumpling; Commercial Bread—White; Commercial Bread—brown||Vegetables—fresh; Vegetables—cooked; Vegetables (fried/stir fry); Fruit; Legumes; Bread—wholewheat; Fish|
|Description||Ultraprocessed and obesogenic foods high in salt, sugar and saturated fats||Minimally processed, nutrient-dense foods|
|Foods||Instant Noodles; Confectionery and Sweet Snacks; Sweets; Sugar-sweetened beverages; Salty Snacks; Dairy, Ultraprocessed; Meat, Ultraprocessed; Commercial bread; Breakfast Cereals; Flour-based meal with roasted or baked additions, (e.g., burger, pizza, dagwood, gatsby, kota); Dessert; Confectionery (Cookies, scones, muffins); Sugar; Deep fried starchy food (deep-fried dumpling, potato chips)||Fruit; Vegetables; Legumes; Legumes, cooked; Vegetables, cooked or fried; vegetables and relish; Fish, cooked or grilled; Fish|
|Household||PI 1||PI 0|
|RI 1||high risk, protective (households frequently consume risky foods but also protective foods)||high risk, vulnerable (households frequently consume risky foods, but lacking adequate protective food consumption)|
|RI 0||low risk, protective (households consume risky foods infrequently, and frequently consume protective foods)||low risk, vulnerable (households infrequently consume risky foods but also consume inadequate protective foods)|
|RI 1||High risk and protective (outlet stocks a wide variety of high risk and protective foods)||High risk (outlet stocks a variety of high risk foods but few protective)|
|RI 0||Low risk and protective (outlet stocks a variety of low-risk and protective foods)||Low risk (outlet stocks mainly low-risk staple foods and few protective or high-risk foods)|
|Outlet Type||Ahodwo||Khayelitsha||% Ahodwo||% Khayelitsha|
|Stall or mobile trader||89||19||22% &23%|
|Formal food service||58||12||15%||14%|
|Informal food service||116||19||29%||23%|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Kroll, F.; Swart, E.C.; Annan, R.A.; Thow, A.M.; Neves, D.; Apprey, C.; Aduku, L.N.E.; Agyapong, N.A.F.; Moubarac, J.-C.; Toit, A.d.; et al. Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3924. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143924
Kroll F, Swart EC, Annan RA, Thow AM, Neves D, Apprey C, Aduku LNE, Agyapong NAF, Moubarac J-C, Toit Ad, et al. Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions. Sustainability. 2019; 11(14):3924. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143924Chicago/Turabian Style
Kroll, Florian, Elizabeth Catherina Swart, Reginald Adjetey Annan, Anne Marie Thow, David Neves, Charles Apprey, Linda Nana Esi Aduku, Nana Ama Frimpomaa Agyapong, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Andries du Toit, and et al. 2019. "Mapping Obesogenic Food Environments in South Africa and Ghana: Correlations and Contradictions" Sustainability 11, no. 14: 3924. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143924