Next Article in Journal
#Globalcitizen: An Explorative Twitter Analysis of Global Identity and Sustainability Communication
Previous Article in Journal
Cultural Heritage Appraisal by Visitors to Global Cities: The Use of Social Media and Urban Analytics in Urban Buzz Research
Open AccessArticle

State-of-Charge Effects on Standalone Solar-Storage Systems in Hot Climates: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia

King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC), Riyadh 11672, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(12), 3471; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123471
Received: 12 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 17 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
In this paper, we quantify the economic and environmental implications of operating a standalone photovoltaic-battery system (PVB) while varying the battery’s minimum allowable state of charge (MSOC), the load profile, and simultaneously incorporating ambient temperature effects in hot climates. To that end, Saudi Arabia has been chosen for this case study. Over a project lifetime of 25 years, we find that, contrary to the widely accepted norm of 50% being a reasonable MSOC, a lower MSOC can bestow economic benefits. For example, a MSOC of 20% results in a lower number of batteries required throughout the lifetime of the project—while still meeting demand. For a village of 1000 homes, this translates to a saving of $47 million in net present value. Further, incorporating temperature effects results in deducing more realistic costs that are 125% higher than the ideal scenario (i.e., when temperature is not modeled). This difference stems from underestimating the actual number of batteries needed throughout the project lifetime. Compared to a diesel-powered microgrid, and for a village of 1000 homes, a PVB would, on an annual basis, avoid emitting 5000 tons of carbon and avoid burning 2 million liters of diesel. View Full-Text
Keywords: storage; solar photovoltaics; state-of-charge; battery; microgrid; diesel storage; solar photovoltaics; state-of-charge; battery; microgrid; diesel
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Elshurafa, A.M.; Aldubyan, M.H. State-of-Charge Effects on Standalone Solar-Storage Systems in Hot Climates: A Case Study in Saudi Arabia. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3471.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop