Is Voluntary Product Stewardship for E-Waste Working in New Zealand? A Whangarei Case Study
1.1. The New Zealand E-Waste Scape
1.2. Whangarei Case Study
3.1. General Recycling Behaviours and Values
3.2. E-Waste Behaviours–Quantitative Results
3.3. E-Waste Behaviours–Qualitative Results
3.4. E-Waste Management
4.1. Influences on E-Waste Behaviours
4.2. E-Waste Services and Cost
4.3. Obsolescence and Its Impact on Volume
4.4. Would Mandatory EPR Increase Recycling Rates?
Conflicts of Interest
|PART ONE: DEMOGRAPHICS|
|1. Which area of Whangarei do you live in?|
|2. Which age group do you fit into?|
|3. Are you: male/female/other|
|4. Which ethnic group(s) do you belong to?|
|5. Who lives in your household?|
|6. What is your highest completed qualification? (e.g., trade certificate, bachelor’s degree, etc.)|
|7. What is your household income?|
|8. Which political party do you support?|
|PART TWO: GENERAL RECYCLING BEHAVIOURS|
|9. How often do you recycle the following household waste items? |
(Glass, Plastic, Metal, Aluminium, Paper, Cardboard)
|PART TWO: ENVIRONMENTAL BELIEFS|
|10. Please rate whether you agree with the following statements relating to household waste management. |
(Recycling substantially reduces the use of landfills; Recycling conserves natural resources; Recycling will not make much difference to the quality of the environment; Recycling creates jobs; Households like mine should not be blamed for environmental problems caused by excessive waste generation; Given increasing environmental problems with waste, I feel a moral obligation to recycle; E-waste creates significant environmental and social problems; Storing electronic equipment at the end of its useful life has a significant environmental impact).
|PART THREE: E-WASTE BEHAVIOURS|
|11. Why might you dispose of the following types of e-waste?|
|12. How do you currently dispose of [11 WEEE categories of e-waste] in your household?|
|13. If you stated that your household stores e-waste on the previous page, please indicate what type of e-waste you currently have in storage, and how many items.|
|14. If you stated that your household stores e-waste, please rate the following statements for your household.|
|15. I would change the way that I/we manage e-waste in my/our household if...|
|16. When was the last time you disposed of e-waste? And how did you do it?|
|PART FOUR: E-WASTE MANAGEMENT|
|17. Are you satisfied with the effectiveness of e-waste recycling services available in your community?|
|18. Do you know where the nearest waste transfer station is to your home? And have you used it to dispose of e-waste?|
|19. If consumers are expected to pay for user friendly, quality assured, environmentally sound, healthy and safe e-waste recycling, how much would you be willing to pay?|
|20. How would you rate the ‘overall effectiveness’ of the current approach in dealing with e-waste in New Zealand as a whole?|
|21. In your opinion, what is the best approach for New Zealand in dealing with e-waste issues?|
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|Type of Disposal||Organisations||Product||Cost|
|Service Provider Take-Back Scheme||Spark |
|Smart phones |
|Service Provider Trade-In Scheme||Spark |
|Some smart phones||Consumer may be given credit or discount|
|Supplier Take-Back Scheme||Dell |
|All products provided by supplier||No charge|
|Supplier Take-Back Scheme||Fisher & Paykel||Refrigerators and freezers |
Any other e-waste (except computers and TVs)
|No charge if collection includes a fridge or freezer|
|Supplier Trade-In Scheme||Dell||Any make of used computer or printer equipment when purchasing new from supplier||No charge|
|Drop-off Recycling||District Council Recycling Schemes||Most e-waste |
(While WDC collects all forms of e-waste through its municipal schemes, this is not true for all district councils in NZ)
|Most products will incur charges|
|Drop-off Recycling||e-Waste Recyclers||Most e-waste||Most products will incur charges|
|Drop-off Recycling||TCF New Zealand Re:Mobile Initiative||Smart phones |
|No charge–contribution made to charity|
|Governmental Initiatives||Key Details|
|Resource Management Act (1991)||Addresses waste management through controls on the environmental effects of waste management facilities through local policy, plans and consent procedures. In 2004, new environmental standards introduced into the Act included improvements in the standards of landfills (e.g., requirements for large landfills to collect and destroy greenhouse gas emissions).|
|Waste Minimisation Act (2008)||Levy imposed on all waste sent to landfill. |
Clarification of role of territorial authorities regarding waste minimisation.
Promotes product stewardship schemes with the opportunity to define priority products for compulsory schemes.
Imposes some mandatory waste reporting.
The establishment of a Waste Advisory Board.
|New Zealand Waste Strategy (2010)||Aims to reduce the harmful effects of waste and to improve the efficiency of resource use.|
|Local Government Act (2002)||Includes a requirement for territorial authorities to complete their own Waste Management Plans.|
|Ministry for the Environment Community Environment Fund||Funds projects that support partnerships between parties and increase community-based advice, educational opportunities, and public awareness on environmental issues.|
|Ministry for the Environment Waste Minimisation Fund||Funds projects that promote or achieve waste minimisation. By supporting these projects, the fund increases resource efficiency, reuse, recovery and recycling and decreases waste to landfill.|
|Non-Governmental Initiatives||Key Details|
|New Zealand Product Stewardship Council (2016)||An independent council that supports inclusive government, industry and community engagement around the investigation and implementation of product stewardship and related regulation.|
|eDay New Zealand Trust (2010)||Replaced Computer Access New Zealand Trust (CANZ) (1999). |
Promotes best practice e-waste collection and recycling.
Promotes education initiatives and e-waste awareness.
Ran annual e-waste collection days (eDay) in main centres from 2007–2010.
|The Zero Waste New Zealand Trust (1997)||Promotes zero waste in schools, businesses, councils and households. |
Acts as a funding manager, distributing funds sources from The Tindall Foundation, Community Employment Group (CEG), and the Sustainable Management Fund to over 300 community groups, schools, etc.
|Zero Waste Network (2017)||Replaced Community Recycling Network (CRN) (2006). |
Represents community enterprises focused on zero waste with members from Northland (CBEC–Community Business & Environment Centre) to Southland.
|Relevant Supranational Waste Directives||Key Details|
|Basel Convention (1989, NZ ratified 1994)||Promotes |
the reduction of hazardous waste generation and the promotion of environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, wherever the place of disposal;
the restriction of transboundary movements of hazardous materials except where it is perceived to be in accordance with the principles of environmentally sound management; and a regulatory system applying to cases where transboundary movements are permissible.
|Minimata Convention on Mercury (2013, not yet ratified)||This convention addresses issues relating to the mining, movement, and emissions of mercury. It promotes: |
the protection of human health and the environment from mercury exposure and
Reducing mercury emissions from human activity
|Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region (Noumea Convention) (1986, NZ ratified 1990)||Aims to protect and manage the natural resources and environment of the South Pacific region from polluting and dumping. Also discusses the storage of toxic and hazardous wastes.|
|E-Waste Type||Volume (kg)|
|SCREENS (including CRT and small e-waste)||14,860|
|E WASTE (large e-waste items)||16,860|
|Disposal Method||Don’t Know||Return to Supplier/Retailer||Other||Waste Transfer Station Mixed with General Waste||Store It||Sell It||Give Away to Friends/Whanau||Donate to Charity||Waste Transfer Station for Recycling||Throw Away with Household Rubbish|
|Small Household Appliances||2||4.8||6.4||13.1||16.7||25.9||43||52.6||37.8||39|
|Large Household Appliances||3.2||7.6||16.4||10||14.5||34.5||33.7||36.1||48.2||2|
|Toys, Leisure & Sports Equipment||2||0.8||0.4||10||19.1||28.3||44.2||50.6||15.1||29.1|
|Key||Highest for Category||Highest in Disposal Method||Lowest in Disposal Method|
|Number of Items||1 Item||2 Items||3 Items||4 Items||5 or More Items|
|SHA (n = 99)||38.4||32.3||15.2||2.0||12.1|
|LHA (n = 62)||46.8||30.6||11.3||8.1||3.2|
|ICT (n = 94)||30.9||26.6||17.0||12.8||12.8|
|HHD (n = 71)||43.7||35.2||8.5||8.5||4.2|
|Phones (n = 124)||25.8||31.5||18.5||10.5||13.7|
|AV (n = 65)||38.5||32.3||12.3||3.1||13.8|
|LE (n = 47)||48.9||31.9||12.8||4.3||2.1|
|ET (n = 53)||45.3||24.5||11.3||7.5||11.3|
|TLSE (n = 64)||28.1||20.3||14.1||6.3||31.3|
|Batteries (n = 47)||12.8||25.5||10.6||10.6||40.4|
|ME (n = 15)||73.3||13.3||6.7||0.0||6.7|
|Power cables, cords etc. (n = 93)||17.2||21.5||14.0||4.3||43.0|
|Theme||Number of Responses|
|More educational resources required||17|
|User pays systems needed||2|
|Free drop off/costs are too high||10|
|Need for action||7|
|Charge at purchase point||3|
|Government intervention required||7|
|Extended producer responsibility themes||7|
|Rebates/incentives to recycle required||3|
|Issues with current management in Whangarei District||7|
|TOTAL RESPONSES OVERALL||67|
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Blake, V.; Farrelly, T.; Hannon, J. Is Voluntary Product Stewardship for E-Waste Working in New Zealand? A Whangarei Case Study. Sustainability 2019, 11, 3063. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113063
Blake V, Farrelly T, Hannon J. Is Voluntary Product Stewardship for E-Waste Working in New Zealand? A Whangarei Case Study. Sustainability. 2019; 11(11):3063. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113063Chicago/Turabian Style
Blake, Vicktoria, Trisia Farrelly, and Jonathon Hannon. 2019. "Is Voluntary Product Stewardship for E-Waste Working in New Zealand? A Whangarei Case Study" Sustainability 11, no. 11: 3063. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113063