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Article

Phytotoxicity of Corncob Biochar before and after Heat Treatment and Washing

University of Hohenheim, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Tropics and Subtropics Group (440e), Stuttgart 70599, Germany
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Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010030
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
Biochar from crop residues such as corncobs can be used for soil amendment, but its negative effects have also been reported. This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of different biochar treatments and application rates on cress (Lepidium sativum). Corncob biochar was produced via slow pyrolysis without using purging gas. Biochar treatments included fresh biochar (FB), dried biochar (DB), washed biochar (WB), and biochar water extract (WE). Biochar application rates of 10, 20, and 30 t/ha were investigated. Significant phytotoxic effects of biochar were observed on germination rates, shoot length, fresh weight, and dry matter content, while severe toxic effects were identified in FB and WE treatments. Germination rate after 48 h (GR48) decreased with the increase of biochar application rates in all treatments. The observed order of performance of the biochar treatments for germination, shoot length, and shoot fresh weight for every biochar application rate was WB>DB>WE>FB, while it was the reverse order for the shoot dry matter content. WB treatment showed the best performance in reducing the phytotoxicity of biochar. The mitigation of the phytotoxicity in fresh corncob biochar by washing and heat treatment was found to be a simple and effective method. View Full-Text
Keywords: biochar; crop residue; corncob; germination; phytotoxicity; self-purging pyrolysis; soil amendment biochar; crop residue; corncob; germination; phytotoxicity; self-purging pyrolysis; soil amendment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Intani, K.; Latif, S.; Islam, M.S.; Müller, J. Phytotoxicity of Corncob Biochar before and after Heat Treatment and Washing. Sustainability 2019, 11, 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010030

AMA Style

Intani K, Latif S, Islam MS, Müller J. Phytotoxicity of Corncob Biochar before and after Heat Treatment and Washing. Sustainability. 2019; 11(1):30. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Intani, Kiatkamjon, Sajid Latif, Md. S. Islam, and Joachim Müller. 2019. "Phytotoxicity of Corncob Biochar before and after Heat Treatment and Washing" Sustainability 11, no. 1: 30. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010030

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