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Sustainability 2019, 11(1), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11010279

Implicit Secondary Authentication for Sustainable SMS Authentication

1
Department of Convergence Science, Graduate School of Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea
2
Information Security Research Division, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 34129, Korea
3
Department of Medical Information, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract

Short message service (SMS) is the most widely adopted multi-factor authentication method for consumer-facing accounts. However, SMS authentication is susceptible to vulnerabilities such as man-in-the-middle attack, smishing, and device theft. This study proposes implicit authentication based on behavioral pattern of users when they check an SMS verification code and environmental information of user proximity to detect device theft. User behavioral pattern is collected by using the accelerometer and gyroscope of a smart device such as a smartphone and smart watch. User environmental information is collected using device fingerprint, wireless access point, Bluetooth, and global positioning system information. To evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, we perform experiments using a total of 1320 behavioral and environmental data collected from 22 participants. The scheme achieves an average equal error rate of 6.27% when using both behavioral and environmental data collected from only a smartphone. Moreover, it achieves an average equal error rate of 0% when using both behavioral and environmental data collected from a smartphone and smart watch. Therefore, the proposed scheme can be employed for more secure SMS authentication. View Full-Text
Keywords: implicit authentication; SMS authentication; behavior analysis; environment analysis; autoencoder; dynamic time warping implicit authentication; SMS authentication; behavior analysis; environment analysis; autoencoder; dynamic time warping
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Ryu, G.; Kim, S.-H.; Choi, D. Implicit Secondary Authentication for Sustainable SMS Authentication. Sustainability 2019, 11, 279.

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