In order to assess the implications of P2P collaborative consumption in the Hammarby Sjöstad urban area, scenarios were developed to test a baseline and compare it to sharing, including different assumptions. Thereafter, an integrated logistic service, using a locker sharing service, was added to find the implications on the logistics and transportation impacts.
2.3.2. Sharing Scenario
The review of the sharing scenario involves the Hygglo P2P platform that enables the collaborative consumption of products [29
]. In this study, the environmental impacts of this service were analyzed for the sharing of products in the Hammarby Sjöstad urban district. Scenarios were developed to analyze the most common products currently shared with a baseline where no products are shared.
Data for the most popular products shared and the product searches for Hammarby Sjöstad residents was provided by Hygglo for the period of August 2017 to November 2017. Based on the data provided, an extrapolation to an annual rental lineup of products was made in order to understand the potential of sharing during a longer period. Table 2
outlines the annual rentals and the products reviewed.
It was assumed that each product would be shared at least three times per year. Thus, the number of products available (listings) is lower than the number of rentals. The following sub-sections provide data and assumptions pertaining to transportation, use and product lifetime, sharing platform and infrastructure and avoided products.
Product Use and Lifetime
The use of the product, both by the provider and user, accounted for the varying characteristics and impacts from different products, including e.g. seasons, energy use, etc.; see Table 4
. Product use in Hammarby Sjöstad was only considered to allow for a comparison with the reference scenario. It was assumed that 40% of the products and only 20% of the vehicles (cars and vans) were available in Hammarby Sjöstad. Thus, only this share of impacts from the use by providers was allocated to the total impacts from the use phase in Hammarby Sjöstad; the sensitivity of this assumption was also tested in the analysis. The assumptions are provided in high and low values to determine the sensitivity of the use phase.
The product lifetime was used to determine and allocate emissions to the product for the annual use in the Hammarby Sjöstad area. The lifetime of the products was modeled to be the same in the high and low scenarios; see Table 5
Platform and Infrastructure for Sharing
The impact of the online sharing platform, e.g., data and energy use for searches, databases, servers, were also considered. It is assumed that there were three searches per listing and that all the products were shared several times. In order to include the impact of the sharing service platform, electricity demand for data storage and search engine use was developed based on details provided in [30
] (see Supplementary Materials
As a consequence of the sharing platform, consumer behavior may be altered; i.e. the purchase of certain products may be avoided or replaced by the sharing of products with the same functionality. The assumptions for the proportion of products replaced by sharing are detailed in Table 6
2.3.3. Integrated Scenario for Improved Logistics through the Sharing Locker Service
As the transportation of products between the provider and user have been found to have a significant impact on the environmental performance of sharing products, the potential for the improved logistics of product sharing was also reviewed through integration with a recently developed digital locking and storage service (hereafter referred to as locker service) in Hammarby Sjöstad. It is hoped that this locker service will improve package logistics and availability for P2P sharing. Additional scenarios have therefore been included to assess the influence of such locker services, including assumptions, on product sharing through the P2P platform.
For delivery and pick-up, the sender can put the package in a locker and register it with the service; thereafter the recipient is notified through a mobile application, and the postbox, locker or room, can be opened using the application or code. By providing such services, households and citizens can share products among themselves, and logistics companies can deliver and pick-up packages with a reduced number of delivery attempts. The sharing locker service can be used for the sharing of products; as such the services were also reviewed in this assessment as a separate service and in integration with the online sharing platform. This was done to understand the potential for reduced emissions and transportation, first and foremost, from traditional package deliveries.
In order to review the potential of using this system, the review includes the use of the locker services in all apartment buildings in Hammarby Sjöstad. Lockers, with several boxes, were anticipated to be installed as new lockers in the apartment buildings; see Supplementary Materials
for more details on the assumptions for the locker service.
For the sharing services reviewed in the previous scenarios, it was assumed that all products were shared personally between the user and provider. With the use of the locker services, traditional logistics may be employed for the sharing of products between the user and provider. To determine the implications of the service integration, all products shared through the online sharing platform in the Hammarby Sjöstad district were modeled as employing the sharing lockers. This entails that the products are placed in a sharing service locker, picked up by a logistics company and thereafter placed in another locker.
Previous products reviewed, which may not be compatible with the locker services, e.g. cars, vans and bikes, were not included in the assessment, as the review was focused only on products which could fit in the lockers. As such, the assessment was dissimilar to the previous scenario reviewed above, and not compared with these results. To compare with the previous P2P sharing scenario (without the sharing of cars, vans and bikes) results were also extracted for the sharing of the remaining products. In the integrated scenario, the transportation of the packages is altered to include pick-up and delivery by logistic services and impacts.
A high and low transportation impact for the logistics was also tested; again, with a total distance of 10 km. The high impact transportation (labeled Sharing Integ. Trans. Logistics) included picking up the package by a conventional diesel vehicle (e.g. Bring or DHL), its distribution to a central logistics center and delivery to the user by cargo bikes. The trip back to the provider was assumed to have the same route. The package, therefore, is posted, picked-up, delivered, posted, and returned using the sharing locker and logistics services.
In the near future, logistic services for the Hammarby Sjöstad urban district aim to use cargo bikes services. As such, no impacts for transport were included for the use of the bikes, although there may be impacts from storage and management of the operations. The low impact transportation scenario (labeled Sharing Integ. Trans. Bike) included only logistics by cargo bikes.
Finally, as the integration may increase sharing due to the ease at which packages can be picked up and dropped off, another scenario was included to review an increase in sharing. In this scenario, the assessment includes twice as many products shared, given the same number of advertisements and availability for sharing (labeled Sharing Integ. Incr. Sharing).